“Self-tolerance and immunity are actively acquired in para

“Self-tolerance and immunity are actively acquired in parallel through a poorly understood ability of antigen receptors to switch between signaling death or proliferation of antigenbinding lymphocytes in different contexts. It is not known whether

this tolerance-immunity switch requires global rewiring of the signaling apparatus or if it can arise from a single molecular change. By introducing individual CARD11 mutations found in human lymphomas into selleck products antigen-activated mature B lymphocytes in mice, we find here that lymphoma-derived CARD11 mutations switch the effect of self-antigen from inducing B cell death into T cell-independent proliferation, Blimp1-mediated plasmablast differentiation, and autoantibody secretion. selleck screening library Our findings demonstrate that regulation of CARD11 signaling is a critical switch governing the decision between death and proliferation in antigen-stimulated mature B cells and that mutations in this switch represent a powerful initiator for aberrant B cell responses in vivo.”
“The autonomic nervous system develops following migration and differentiation of precursor cells originating in the neural crest. Using

immunohistochemistry on intact zebrafish embryos and larvae we followed the development of the intrinsic enteric and extrinsic vagal innervation of the gut. At 3 days postfertilization (dpf), enteric nerve cell bodies and fibers were seen mainly in the middle and distal intestine, while the innervation of the proximal intestine was scarcer.

The number of fibers and cell bodies gradually increased, although a large intraindividual variation was seen in the timing (but not the order) of development. At 11-13 dpf most of the proximal intestine received a similar degree of innervation as the rest of the gut. The main intestinal branches of the vagus were similarly often already well developed at 3 dpf, entering the gut at the transition between the proximal and middle intestine and projecting posteriorly along the length of the gut. Subsequently, fibers branching off the vagus innervated all regions of the gut. The presence of several putative enteric neurotransmitters was suggested Selleckchem Vactosertib by using markers for neurokinin A (NKA), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), nitric oxide, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The present results corroborate the belief that the enteric innervation is well developed before the onset of feeding (normally occurring around 5-6 dpf). Further, the more detailed picture of how development proceeds at stages previously not examined suggests a correlation between increasing innervation and more regular and elaborated motility patterns.

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