(ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00004978 [ESPRIT] and NCT00013611 [SILCAAT study].)”
“Herpesviruses account for 134 out of the 140 virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) known today. Here we report the identification of 11 novel miRNAs encoded by herpesvirus of turkey click here (HVT), a virus used as a live vaccine in poultry against the highly oncogenic Marek’s
disease virus type 1. Ten of these miRNAs were clustered together within the repeat long region of the viral genome, demonstrating some degree of positional conservation with other mardiviruses. Close sequence and phylogenetic relationships of some miRNAs in this cluster indicate evolution by duplication. HVT miRNAs represent the first example of virus-encoded miRNAs that show evolution by duplication.”
“A 47-year-old man reports a 1-week history of diarrhea, with grossly bloody stools for the past 5 days, a reports no history of travel, contacts with sick persons, or underlying gastrointestinal disease. How should he be evaluated and treated for an infectious cause of his illness?”
“Life span can be extended in rodents by restricting food availability (caloric restriction [CR])
or by providing food low in methionine (Meth-R). Here, we show that a period of food restriction limited to the first 20 days of life, via a 50% enlargement of litter size, shows extended median and maximal life span relative to mice from normal sized litters and that a Meth-R diet initiated at 12 STAT inhibitor months of age also significantly increases longevity. Furthermore, mice exposed to a CR diet show changes in liver messenger RNA patterns, in phosphorylation of Erk, Jnk2, and p38 kinases, and in phosphorylation of mammalian target
of rapamycin and its substrate 4EBP1, HE-binding protein 1 that are not observed in liver from age-matched Meth-R mice. These results introduce new protocols that can increase maximal life span and suggest that the spectrum of metabolic changes induced by low-calorie P-type ATPase and low-methionine diets may differ in instructive ways.”
“Increased mortality and overexpression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammatory stress are well-documented age-associated phenomena; however, the site of IL-6 overexpression is not entirely known. Here, we report that white adipose tissue is a major source of IL-6 in aged animals during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation. Among the various tissues examined, white adipose tissue from the epididymal fat pad (located in the abdominal cavity) expressed the highest level of IL-6 messenger RNA in both young and aged mice with a 5.5-fold higher level in the aged. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, within the adipose tissue, LPS-induced IL-6 expression is localized to both the adipocytes and stromal cells.