Recombinant mutanase hydrolyzed insoluble glucans of cariogenic s

Recombinant mutanase hydrolyzed insoluble glucans of cariogenic streptococci efficiently. Enzymatic reaction on hydrolysis of mutan, we assumed that the enzyme cleaved the substrate in an endo-catalytic manner. The hydrolysis of alpha-1,3-glucan oligosaccharides gave alpha-1,3-glucan tetrasaccharide as the primary final product but alpha-1,3-glucan pentasaccharide was the minimal size of substrate on which the enzyme catalyzed. Mutanase CCI-779 cost hydrolyzed borohydride-treated alpha-1,3-glucan hexasaccharide into the tetrasaccharide and the disaccharide-alditol. Thus, the enzyme cleaved the fourth alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkage from the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharides. Mutanase in fermented food should be capable of removing

streptococcal insoluble glucans that can induce dental caries.”
“Background To better understand the role of human rhinovirus-associated wheeze as a risk factor for childhood recurrent wheezing, a cohort of young children experiencing their first wheezing episode was followed until

school age. Methods All 111 hospitalized wheezing children Navitoclax research buy (median age, 12months) were initially participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial on the efficacy of oral prednisolone. In this 7-yr follow-up, risk factors for recurrent wheezing were analysed, and then, the efficacy of prednisolone was evaluated overall and in pre-specified subgroups post-hoc. The main outcome was time to recurrent wheezing. Results The strongest

independent risk factor for recurrent wheezing was rhinovirus detection (hazard ratio 3.54; 95% confidence interval 1.518.30) followed by sensitization (3.47; 1.558.30, respectively) age <1yr (2.45; 1.294.65) and eczema (2.33; 1.114.90). Overall, prednisolone did not prevent recurrent wheezing. In AC220 solubility dmso subgroup analysis, prednisolone was associated with less recurrent wheezing in children affected by rhinovirus (0.32; 0.120.90, adjusted to sensitization, young age, viral aetiology and parental asthma) and/or with eczema (0.27; 0.080.87, adjusted respectively). Conclusions Our data strengthen the role of rhinovirus-associated wheeze as an important risk factor for recurrent wheezing and asthma in young first-time wheezing children. Prospective randomized trials on the efficacy of corticosteroids in rhinovirus-associated early wheezing are warranted. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 00494624)”
“Background: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a system of prehospital trauma care designed for the combat environment. Needle decompression (ND) is a critical TCCC intervention, because previous data suggest that up to 33% of all preventable deaths on the battlefield result from tension pneumothoraces. There has recently been increased interest in performing ND at the fifth intercostal space in the midaxillary line to prevent complications associated with landmarking second intercostal space in the midclavicular line site.

Methods: A descriptive study included 142 women with self-reporte

Methods: A descriptive study included 142 women with self-reported PMS, aged 18-45 years, who were recruited by the Outpatient Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Premenstrual

symptoms were retrospectively assessed by using screening MCC950 research buy questionnaires modified with the DSM-IV. In total, 126 eligible subjects were asked to record their daily symptoms during two consecutive menstrual cycles by using a premenstrual syndrome diary (PMSD).

Results: Of 126 eligible subjects, 67 filled in the PMSD for two cycles. The median of total scores of PMSD peaked on the day before menses and dropped after the beginning of the menses. Mood swings were the most common moderate-to-severe symptom prospectively reported by the subjects. The symptoms of PMS were relatively consistent across the two cycles.

Conclusions: Women with moderate-to-severe PMS were vulnerable to psychological symptoms. Further studies are needed to understand the correlations between hormonal changes and the experience of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle.”
“Background 17DMAG purchase and Purpose: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major complication of urologic surgery. Data are limited regarding the benefits of heparin prophylaxis for patients undergoing minimally invasive urologic surgery. The American Urological Association recommends sequential compression devices (SCDs) for urologic

laparoscopic and robot-assisted procedures but provides no clear recommendations for the use of pharmacologic prophylaxis. We compare the rates of postoperative VTE in two groups of patients undergoing robot-assisted prostatectomy (RP) by GSK2879552 mouse two surgeons-one who consistently used heparin with SCDs (group 1) and the other who used SCDs alone (group 2) for prophylaxis.

Patients and Methods: An Institutional Review Board approved, prospectively managed database was analyzed. Group 1 received SCDs just before induction and 5000 units of heparin subcutaneously just after induction. SCDs were continued postoperatively, and heparin was administered

twice a day until discharge. VTE rate, patient age, body mass index (BMI), operative time, lymphocele rate, length of stay (LOS), estimated blood loss (EBL), Gleason score, and pathologic stage were compared. Categorical variables were analyzed with the chi square test of proportions and continuous variables with t test using SPSS v 14 software.

Results: There were 1486 consecutive patients who underwent RP between August 2007 and December 30, 2011. Of these, 922 patients received heparin/SCDs and 564 received SCDs alone. Age, BMI, EBL, medial LOS, Gleason score, and pathologic stage were the same in the two groups. There was a higher rate of positive nodes in group 2 (1.3% vs 3.5%). There was one lymphocele in each group. Although operative times were longer in group 2 (229 vs 170 min, P < 0.001), the incidence of VTE was not statistically different (1.0% vs 0.7%, P = 0.78).

This review discusses the luteal-phase insufficiency seen after G

This review discusses the luteal-phase insufficiency seen after GnRHa triggering and the various trials that have been performed to assess the most optimal luteal support in relation to GnRHa triggering. Although more research is needed, GnRHa triggering is now an alternative to HCG triggering, combining a significant reduction in OHSS with high ongoing pregnancy rates. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“With the exponential growth of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in pediatric patients, a new method of long-term surveillance, remote monitoring (RM), has become the standard of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of RM as a monitoring tool in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was performed of 198 patients at the University of Iowa Children’s Hospital BMS-754807 molecular weight who had CIEDs. Data transmitted by RM were analyzed. The following Syk inhibitor data were examined: patient demographics; median interval between transmissions; detection of adverse events requiring corrective measures, including detection of lead failure; detection of arrhythmias and device malfunctions independent

of symptoms; time gained in the detection of events using RM versus standard practice; the validity of RM; and the impact of RM on data management. Of 198 patients, 162 submitted 615 RM transmissions. The median time between remote transmissions was 91 days. Of 615 total transmissions, 16 % had true adverse events with 11 % prompting clinical intervention. Of those events requiring clinical response, 61 % of patients reported symptoms. The median interval between last follow-up and occurrence of events detected by RM was 46 days, representing a gain of 134 days for patients followed-up at 6-month intervals and 44 days for patients followed-up at 3 month-intervals. The sensitivity and specificity of RM were found to be 99 and 72 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 41 and 99 %, respectively. RM allows for early identification of arrhythmias

and device malfunctions, thus prompting earlier corrective measures and improving care and safety in pediatric patients.”
“BACKGROUND

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been applied successfully to treat masseteric hypertrophy, but MLN2238 Proteases inhibitor it can cause muscle weakness.

OBJECTIVE

To measure the change in maximum bite force (MBF) after BTX-A injection into the human masseter muscle and to evaluate the influence of a booster (repeated) injection.

METHODS

Thirty volunteers completed 18-week follow-up, and MBF was measured. At 18 weeks after the first injection, a booster injection was given to 14 patients, and they were followed up until 18 weeks from the booster injection.

RESULTS

Mean MBF was approximately 20% lower at 2 weeks than before the injection, and it recovered gradually after 4 weeks to return to the preinjection level at 12 weeks.

A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal condi

A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal conditions for malaria vectors to thrive. As the demand for locally-produced rice grows, increased rice farming will generate great numbers of vectors; emphasizing the need to protect local communities against malaria.”
“Background: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in very late life is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to assess HRQoL and health outcomes at four months follow-up in a group of older people awaiting transfer to residential aged care.

Methods: Secondary analysis of data from a randomized

controlled trial conducted in three public hospitals in Adelaide. A total of 320 patients in hospital beds awaiting a residential aged care bed participated. Outcome measurements included HRQoL (Assessment of Quality of Life; AQoL), functional VX-689 concentration level (Modified Barthel Index), hospital readmission rates, survival, and place of residence at four months follow-up.

Results: In this frail group the median AQoL was poor at baseline (median 0.02; 95% CI -0.01 – 0.04) and at follow-up (0.05; 95% CI 0.03 – 0.06). On leaving hospital, more than one third of participants who were moving for the first time into nursing home care rated themselves in a state worse than death (AQoL = 0.0). Poor HRQoL at discharge

from hospital (AQoL = 0.0) was a significant predictor of mortality (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 – 2.7), but not hospital readmission nor place of residence www.selleckchem.com/products/gm6001.html at four months follow-up. Improved function was a predictor of improved HRQoL among the surviving cohort.

Conclusion: People making the transition to residential aged care from hospital have very poor HRQoL, but AZD2014 nmr small gains in function seem to be related to improvement. While functional gains are unlikely to change discharge destination in this frail group, they can contribute to improvements in HRQoL. These gains may be of great significance for individuals nearing the end of life and should be taken into account in resource allocation.”
“SoRIP1 and SoRIP2 are ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP: EC 3.2.2.22)

genes identified in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). They are differentially expressed in a development-dependent manner during spinach somatic embryogenesis. Here, we isolated genomic clones of SoRIP1 and SoRIP2. These two RIP genes have different genomic Organization. Phylogenetic analysis Of predicted amino acid sequences of RIPs in Caryophyllales plants revealed that they are divided into two major subfamilies, corresponding to SoRIP1 and SoRIP2. To gain further insight into the transcriptional control of SoRIP1 and SoRIP2, we obtained their 5′-flanking sequences by inverse PCR. Comparison of two 5′-flanking sequences revealed the characteristic cis elements in each region that confer differential transcriptional control. In the 5′-flanking region of SoRIP1, we found several motifs with functions related to embryonic development.

These results show that within-host dynamics and viral dose shoul

These results show that within-host dynamics and viral dose should not be neglected in epidemiological models, and that the simpler GM approach to model nesting provides a reasonable tradeoff between model complexity and accuracy of results.”
“Study Design.

Prospective, randomized trial.

Objective. To assess the in vivo kinematics of the cervical DMH1 in vitro spine after cervical fusion and arthroplasty.

Summary of Background Data. Compared with spinal fusion, disc replacement may impede the development of adjacent segment disease. To achieve this goal, any arthroplasty device should achieve desired spinal alignment while maintaining physiologic spinal motion at both the operated and surrounding motion segments.

Methods. As part of a multicenter, prospective, randomized Food and Drug Administration IDE clinical evaluation of the porous coated motion artificial cervical disc, patients underwent either

a single-level total disc replacement (TDR; 272 patients) or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF; 182 patients) for treatment of cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. Neutral, flexion, and extension radiographs of the cervical spine obtained before surgery, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery were assessed. Quantitative assessments and comparisons of motion patterns were produced using validated computer-assisted methods. Kinematic parameters, including segmental rotation, translation, center of rotation (COR), disc height, and disc angle were calculated.

Results. Cervical TDR preserved angular motion at selleck the operated level, although the range was reduced from 8.0 degrees before

surgery to 6.2 degrees at 12 months after surgery (P < 0.001). Significantly after TDR, adjacent-level angular motion was unchanged. In patients treated with fusion, angular motion at the superior adjacent level increased from 9.6 degrees before surgery to 11.0 degrees (P = 0.003) at 12 months, with a trend toward increased postoperative translation (P = 0.07). For the TDR group, the horizontal COR averaged 0.8 mm posterior to the disc center before surgery and 0.2 mm anterior to the center at 12 months after TDR (P < 0.001), and the vertical COR averaged 2.5 mm below the endplate before surgery and 4.0 mm below at 12 months (P = 0.001). COR at the adjacent levels was AZD6094 unaltered by fusion or TDR. Lordotic alignment and disc height at the index level increased after intervention in both groups.

Conclusion. TDR with the porous coated motion implant is able to restore and maintain lordotic alignment and disc height and maintain angular motion while allowing for similar translation to that seen before surgery. In contrast, after ACDF, the superior adjacent level developed increased angular motion compared with preoperative range of motion. This study provides in vivo data regarding the functioning of TDR and ACDF and their impact on adjacent-level kinematics.


“Use of molecular markers can be limited by the high cost


“Use of molecular markers can be limited by the high cost and extensive time required for their development.

Transfer of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers reduces the cost and time limitations and has allowed the use of these markers in a larger number of species. We tested 11 SSR markers previously developed for Anacardium occidentale on A. humile. The 11 loci were successfully amplified in A. humile. All SHP099 price loci were polymorphic and generated a mean of 5.4 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity was lower than the expected heterozygosity under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for most loci, with mean values of 0.463 and 0.696, respectively. The endogamy coefficients were positive and significant for seven loci. However, the combined probability of paternity exclusion was high, and the combined probability of genetic identity was low. None of the pairs of loci were in linkage disequilibrium. The informative power of these

loci demonstrates that they are suitable for studies of diversity and genetic structure of natural populations of A. humile. In addition, the loci are suitable for estimating gene flow between populations, assessing species crossing preferences, and performing interspecific comparisons.”
“To develop a thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogel that is easy to administer, gels quickly in the body, and allows sustained release of the drug, various poloxamer-based hydrogels containing doxorubicin were prepared with poloxamer and hydrochloric acid under

light protection using the cold method. Their rheological find protocol characterization, dissolution, and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration to rats were evaluated. INCB018424 supplier Hydrochloric acid decreased the viscosity and retarded the gelation time of the injectable gel. The drug was dissolved from the hydrogels by Fickian diffusion through the extramicellar aqueous channels of the gel matrix. P 188 and hydrochloric acid barely affected the dissolution mechanism. However, P 188 increased and hydrochloric acid decreased the dissolution rate of the drug from the injectable gels. The thermo-sensitive injectable gel composed of 0.6% doxorubicin, 15% P 407, 6% P 188, and 0.1% hydrochloric acid was easy to administer intramuscularly and gelled quickly in the body. Moreover, it maintained the plasma concentrations of drug for 60 h and gave an similar to 5-fold higher AUC compared to doxorubicin solution. Thus, it would be useful for delivering doxorubicin in a pattern that allows sustained release for a long time, leading to better bioavailability.</.”
“A cranial spinal fluid fistula through left lumbar region following a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is an extremely rare complication. We report a 25-year-old man who presented with the leakage of clear fluid from the left lumbar region, 3 years after a VP shunt surgery.

The results showed that the studied process reduced considerably

The results showed that the studied process reduced considerably the additives

migration. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in children can be associated with severe outcomes PF-6463922 such as neonatal sepsis-like illness, meningitis, or paralysis. We sought to determine the prevalence of HPeV CNS infections and clinical presentation in children from the United States.

Methods: Frozen nucleic acid extracts from enterovirus-negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained at the Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, in Kansas City from 2006 (n = 242), 2007 (n = 324), and 2008 (n = 218) were tested by 2-step HPeV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. HPeV genotype was determined by sequencing the VP3/VP1 junction. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records.

Results: Overall HPeV was detected in 58/780 (7%) of tested CSF samples; 4/218 (2%) in 2006, 54/320 (17%) in 2007, and 0/242 (0%) in 2008. HPeV (17%) and enterovirus (20%) detection were comparable in 2007. HPeV-3 genotype

was detected in 52/53 specimens successfully sequenced. Detection was seasonal (June-October). HPeV-3-CNS-infection occurred at a mean age of 6.6 +/- 4.4 weeks and predominantly DNA Damage inhibitor in males (71%). The most common clinical presentation was sepsis-like syndrome (66%). The most common symptoms were irritability (98%), fever (95%), and nonspecific rash (58.6%), while neurologic manifestations were rare (5%).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first multiyear buy BMS-777607 prevalence report of HPeV CNS infection in the United States. HPeV CNS infection was detected mostly in male infants with sepsis-like illness during the late summer/autumn season. Routine seasonal CSF testing in infants

for HPeV plus enterovirus may improve etiologic detection and clinical management of infantile sepsis-like presentations.”
“We evaluated the prevalence of human bocavirus and KI and WU polyomaviruses in pediatric intensive care patients with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The prevalence of these viruses was 5.1%, 0%, and 2.6%, respectively, in children with LRTI and 4.8%, 4.8%, and 2.4%, respectively, in those without LRTI.”
“A series of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles have been synthesized employing various template/functional monomer/crosslinking monomer ratio and characterized in detail to elucidate the correlation between the synthetic conditions used and the properties (e.g., particle size and template binding properties) of the obtained nanoparticles. In brief, the presence of propranolol (template) in the polymerization mixture turned out to be a critical factor on determination of the size as well as the binding properties of the imprinted nanoparticles.

Over a 5-year (60 months) follow-up period, this indicates that e

Over a 5-year (60 months) follow-up period, this indicates that eight CT scans will be required if a threshold of 10 mm is desired or six if a threshold of 20 mm is desired. For an 80-day doubling time over a 5-year (60 months) follow-up period, three CT scans will be required if a threshold of 10 mm is desired or

two if a threshold of 20 mm is desired and for a 100-day doubling time. Assuming complete histological clearance of the primary lung cancer and that recurrence occurs from a microscopic focus, a time period of 1700 Selleckchem BI-6727 days (56 months) is required to reach 10 mm in diameter.

The exact timing of interval CT scanning to detect recurrence and new primary tumour depends on philosophy; however, three monthly CT scanning is probably inappropriate, and scanning every 7 months is probably the shortest interval that is clinically useful, particularly for small-cell lung cancer in the first year after treatment. We recommend, based on mathematical modelling, a scanning interval post-potentially curative resection surgery selleck chemicals for primary lung cancer of 18 months, which is different from the current guidelines on surveillance, for non-small-cell lung cancer.”
“Aims To identify, in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB), differences in brain activity between those who maintained and

those who lost bladder control during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain with simultaneous urodynamics. Methods Secondary analysis of a cohort of older women (aged >60) with proven urgency urinary incontinence, who, in the scanner, either developed detrusor overactivity and incontinence (the DO group) or did not (the no DO group). A priori hypothesis: during urgency provoked by bladder filling, without DO, activity in regions related to continence control is diminished in the DO group; specifically (1a) less activation in supplementary motor area (SMA) and (1b) less deactivation

in prefrontal cortex (PFC) AZD5153 and parahippocampal complex (PH). We also explored phenotypic (clinical and urodynamic) differences between the groups. Results During urgency preceding DO, the DO group showed stronger activation in SMA and adjacent regions (hypothesis 1a rejected), and less deactivation in PH but no significant difference in PFC (hypothesis 1b partially accepted). These subjects were older, with more changes in brain’s white matter, decreased tolerance of bladder filling and greater burden of incontinence. Conclusions (1) In older women with OAB, brain activity in the SMA is greater among those with more easily elicitable DO, suggesting a compensatory response to failure of control elsewhere. (2) OAB is heterogeneous; one possible phenotype shows severe functional impairment attributable partly to age-related white matter changes. (3) Functional brain imaging coupled with urodynamics may provide CNS markers of impaired continence control in subjects with OAB. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:652658, 2012.

001) Neither the size of preoperative scoliosis (P = 0 2) nor ky

001). Neither the size of preoperative scoliosis (P = 0.2) nor kyphosis (P = 0.4) was a risk factor for fracture. Length of instrumentation (P = 0.9), anchor type (P = 0.6), and pelvic fixation (P = 0.38) Fer-1 had no significant effect on fracture rates. Eight wound complications were reported, including three cases of skin breakdown at the rod fracture site.

Conclusion. Risk factors for rod fractures include prior fracture, single rods, stainless steel rods,

small diameter rods, proximity to tandem connectors, short tandem connectors, and preoperative ambulation. Repeat fractures are common, especially with single rods.

Rod replacement, with larger diameter rods if appropriate, may be a preferred strategy over connecting the broken rods as fractures signal fatigue of the NU7441 rod.”
“Study Design. Retrospective study.

Objective. The aim of this study is to validate the prevalence

of low bone mineral density (BMD) in woman patients with adult scoliosis and to relate that to surgical treatment outcome. Despite reports of the high prevalence of low BMD among female with adolescent idiopathic, these findings have not been substantiated in any comprehensive review of adult scoliosis patients undergoing surgical treatment.

Summary of Background Data. It has been suggested that scoliosis may predispose to osteoporosis and that degenerative scoliosis could falsely elevate spinal BMD measurements with dual energy radiograph this website absorptiometry (DXA). The discordance between hip and spine BMD measurement using DXA has also been shown in previous cross-sectional study for adult population.

Methods. A retrospective review of 176 women treated surgically for scoliosis. BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were determined by DXA. Patients were categorized as follows: concordance (osteoporosis, osteopenia, or normal BMD on both sites), minor discordance (osteoporosis in one site and osteopenia in the other site), and major discordance (osteoporosis in one site and normal the other site). Body mass index (BMI), preoperative Cobb angle, fusion ratio, and complication were recorded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi(2) test, regression

coefficient test, and simple linear regression. P value was set at P < 0.05.

Results. The mean age was 51 +/- 12 years (26-82 years). The mean T score of the hip was -1.23 +/- 0.89 and of the spine was -0.52 +/- 1.57. Major discordance in BMD 7 (4%) points, minor discordance 68 (39%) points, and concordance was 101 (57%) points. There was moderate correlation between T score of hip and spine (R = 0.55 P < 0.01). T score of the hip and of the spine showed 10.8% and 10.2% of the patients were osteoporotic. The mean Z score of the hip and of the spine showed comparable age and sex matched values. No correlation was observed between BMD and Cobb angle (R = 0.05, P = 0.464). The fusion rate was 93% and surgical complication rate was 14.9%.

Results: A literature search was performed which identified many

Results: A literature search was performed which identified many possible common and uncommon sources of fever. Some of these sources are quite relevant to the anesthesiologist. Other sources had potential relevance in obscure cases.”
“A nationwide

laboratory-based surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections was conducted in Germany. Invasive isolates (n=586) were obtained between 2003 and 2007. Most isolates were obtained from blood (53.9%) or skin lesions (17.6%). The most common emm types were Panobinostat ic50 emm 1 (30.5%), emm 28 (18.3%) and emm 3 (9.6%). Overall, speA was positive in 45.9%, speC in 44.7% and ssa in 14.8% of isolates. SpeA was common in emm type 1 (100%) and emm type 3 (96.4%), whereas speC was

often observed in emm type 28 (93.5%). The most frequent clinical manifestations included sepsis (40.1%), necrotizing fasciitis (20.8%) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (16.6%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, WH-4-023 research buy cefotaxime and levofloxacin. Tetracycline shows the highest rate of resistant or intermediate isolates with 11.6%, followed by clarithromycin (5.5%) and clindamycin (1.2%). The most prominent trend is the reduction of tetracycline-nonsusceptible isolates from 18.6% in 2003 to 8.9% in 2007.”
“To determine the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and attitudes and behavior toward dysmenorrhea in the female students of an university toward this problem.

A total of 1,266 female university students were anonymously surveyed by doctors.

It was found that mean age of the surveyed students was 21.02 +/- A 2.13 years, mean menarche age was 13.3 +/- A 1.4 years, and menstruation frequency was 32.58 +/- A 19.8 days. Of the students, 45.3% were found to suffer pain in each menstruation, 42.5% in some and 12.2% in none. Of those with primary dysmenorrhea, 66.9%

were established to take analgesic drugs.

Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was found higher than that cited in the literature. It was established that although the rate of consultation with health professionals about menstruation and related changes was low, use of agents known to be effective in primary dysmenorrhea treatment was highly common.”
“We report the photoluminescence Fosbretabulin nmr and x-ray luminescence of lanthanum-stabilized cubic barium chloride with europium (Eu(2+)) doping, of general composition Ba(1-x-y)Eu(y)La(x)Cl(2+x). X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the material adopts a cubic fluorite structure for x=0.125 and 0 < y < 0.1. The photoluminescence shows an intense band comprising two components with maxima at 420 and 394 nm. The 394 nm band is assigned to Eu(2+) substituting for Ba(2+) giving a site of cubic symmetry, based on the excitation spectra which show a T(2g) band and E(g) band similar to those in cubic SrCl(2):Eu. The 420 nm band has a very different lifetime and excitation spectrum and is assigned to Eu(2+) ions which have an associated chlorine interstitial ion.