Because of the significant risk of severe cardiorespiratory failu

Because of the significant risk of severe cardiorespiratory failure, we transported the mother to a neonatal cardiac surgical center at 38 weeks of gestation. Indeed,

the baby showed severe cardiopulmonary failure after birth, showing 100% of cardiothoracic ratio on the chest X-ray film, but was saved by the successful Dor procedure, including surgical resection of the aneurysm at 10 h of life. In this case, serial echocardiographic evaluation can allow us to monitor the hemodynamics and lead to successful postnatal management.”
“We extend the standard distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to include the second-order Born amplitude in order to describe the multiple interactions between a projectile and an atomic target. Both the first- and second-order DWBA models are used to calculate triply differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar (e, 2e) on atomic argon with the scattered electron energy Linsitinib molecular weight fixed at 500 eV, the scattering angle

at 6 and the ejected electron energies at 37, 74 and 205 eV. Overall agreements with experimental measurements have been obtained in shape, and the second-order DWBA model improves the calculations as expected, especially Selleckchem VE 821 for recoil peak of TDCS.”
“Relationships between species richness per plant life form and the soil properties: infiltrability, clay plus silt content, salinity, and pH were investigated at eighteen study sites located in western South Africa and Namibia. Plant species data were categorized into five life forms: phanerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, therophytes, and geophytes. A boundary line approach was used to determine ranges of soil properties across which plant richness was constrained or potentially maximal. Ranges of soil properties at which

richness was potentially maximal differed between life forms as follows: total plant richness (similar to 50-200 mm h(-1) infiltrability, similar to 5-20% clay & silt, <100 mS m(-1) EC and 6.5-8.5 pH); phanerophytes (similar to 200-500 mm h(-1), <5%, <100 mS m(-1), 5.5-7.0); hemicryptophytes (similar CH5183284 to 100-250 mm h(-1), 5-18%, <200 mS m(-1), 6.0-8.0), therophytes (similar to 50-250 mm h(-1), 5-10%, >50 mS m(-1), 6.5-8.5), chamaephytes (<250 mm h(-1), 5-25%, >50 mS m(-1), 7.0-8.0), and geophytes (<200 mm h(-1), 5-20%, similar to 50-100 mS m(-1), 6.5-8.0). Soil infiltrability, clay plus silt content, EC and pH seem to be useful properties to consider within plant richness investigations. Depending on physiological adaptations of plants these properties may constrain species distribution. Causality cannot be demonstrated from the relationships; however they can lead to plausible hypotheses as to the ecological processes governing plant distribution patterns. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

“The objective of the work was to investigate tolerance to

“The objective of the work was to investigate tolerance to and removal of arsenic by a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus candidus. The fungus showed luxuriant growth in different concentrations (25 and 50 mg/L) of trivalent and pentavalent forms

of arsenic. Biomass accumulation data substantiate tolerance of A. candidus towards the test concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent forms of arsenic. Highest arsenic removal (mg/g) was recorded selleck inhibitor on day 3. As removal increased with an increase in concentration. Hence, the test fungus A. candidus is a promising candidate for arsenic remediation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Following recent advances in imaging techniques and methods of dendritic stimulation, active voltage spikes have been observed in thin dendritic branches of excitatory pyramidal neurons, where the majority of synapses occur.

The generation of these dendritic Selleck Crenigacestat spikes involves both Na+ ion channels and M-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channels. During strong stimulation of a thin dendrite, the resulting high levels of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and an NMDA agonist, modify the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an NMDAR so that it behaves like a voltage-gated Na+ channel. Hence, the NMDARs can fire a regenerative dendritic spike, just as Na+ channels support the initiation of an action potential following membrane depolarization. However, the duration of the dendritic spike is of the order 100 ms rather than 1 ms, since it involves slow unbinding of glutamate from NMDARs rather than activation of hyperpolarizing K+ channels. It has been suggested that dendritic NMDA spikes may play an important role in dendritic computations and provide a cellular substrate see more for short-term memory. In this paper, we consider a stochastic, conductance-based model of dendritic

NMDA spikes, in which the noise originates from the stochastic opening and closing of a finite number of Na+ and NMDA receptor ion channels. The resulting model takes the form of a stochastic hybrid system, in which membrane voltage evolves according to a piecewise deterministic dynamics that is coupled to a jump Markov process describing the opening and closing of the ion channels. We formulate the noise-induced initiation and termination of a dendritic spike in terms of a first-passage time problem, under the assumption that glutamate unbinding is negligible, which we then solve using a combination of WKB methods and singular perturbation theory. Using a stochastic phase-plane analysis we then extend our analysis to take proper account of the combined effects of glutamate unbinding and noise on the termination of a spike.

Although the in vitro assay has been instrumental in unraveling t

Although the in vitro assay has been instrumental in unraveling the basic steps of the editing cycle it is performed at dilute solvent conditions. This ignores the fact that editing takes place inside the highly crowded mitochondria.

Here we investigate the effects of molecular crowding on RNA editing. By using neutral, macromolecular cosolutes we generate defined dilute, semidilute and crowded solvent properties and we demonstrate different thermodynamic stabilities of the pre-mRNA/gRNA hybrid RNAs at these conditions. Crowded conditions stabilize the RNAs by -30 kJ/mol. Furthermore, we show that the rate constants for the association and dissociation (k(ass)/k(diss)) of substrate RNAs to editosomes decrease, ultimately inhibiting the in vitro reaction. The data demonstrate that the current Citarinostat Epigenetics inhibitor RNA editing in vitro system is sensitive to molecular crowding, which suggests that the in vivo reaction Prexasertib cannot rely on a diffusion-controlled, collision-based mechanism. Possible non-diffusional reaction pathways are discussed.”
“Objectives: To compare H index scores for healthcare researchers returned by Google Scholar, Web of

Science and Scopus databases, and to assess whether a researcher’s age, country of institutional affiliation and physician status influences calculations. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and ninety-five Nobel laureates in Physiology and Medicine from 1901 to 2009 were considered. Year of first and last publications, total publications and citation counts, and the H index for each laureate were calculated from each database. Cronbach’s alpha statistics was used to measure the reliability of H index scores between the databases. Laureate characteristic influence on the H index was analysed using linear regression. Results: There was no concordance between the databases when considering the number of publications and citations count per laureate. The H index was the most reliably calculated bibliometric across the three databases (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.900). All databases returned significantly higher H index scores for younger

laureates (p < 0.0001). Google Scholar Lonafarnib and Web of Science returned significantly higher H index for physician laureates (p = 0.025 and p = 0.029, respectively). Country of institutional affiliation did not influence the H index in any database. Conclusion: The H index appeared to be the most consistently calculated bibliometric between the databases for Nobel laureates in Physiology and Medicine. Researcher-specific characteristics constituted an important component of objective research assessment. The findings of this study call to question the choice of current and future academic performance databases. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A post-marketing, double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety profiles of four commercially available recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was performed.

This result limits the parameter space for which spatiotemporal p

This result limits the parameter space for which spatiotemporal pattern formation is possible. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The hyperfine magnetic field H-HF at Mn-55 in ferromagnetically ordered double perovskites La1-xBixMn0.5Ni0.5O3

with 0 <= x <= 0.9 were investigated by NMR at 1.8 K. H-HF decreases with increasing Bi content x from -258 kOe at x = 0 to approximately -280 kOe at x = 0.9, which is attributed to a reduction in the positive supertransferred hyperfine magnetic field, H-STHF, from neighboring Ni2+ ions. The reduction in H-STHF caused by the Bi substitution suggests that the covalent character of Ni2+-O2–Mn4+ bonds decreases in competition with that of Bi3+-O2- bonds. The decrease in the ferromagnetic Curie temperature of the present system with increasing x is quantitatively phosphatase inhibitor library interpreted with the decreasing covalent character of Ni2+-O2–Mn4+ bonds.”
“Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have become a highly attractive source of seed cells in bone regenerative. It has become a key issue how to effectively improve osteogenic differentiation of buy CX-6258 hASCs in the bone

tissue engineering. Numerous regulatory pathways dominate osteogenic differentiation of hASCs involve transcriptional factors and signaling molecules. However, how these factors combine with each other to regulate hASCs osteogenic differentiation still remain to be illustrated. The identification of microRNAs will illuminate this and might permit finely tuning the osteogenic differentiation process. Here, we present evidence that miR-218 acts as a positive regulator of hASCs osteogenesis. Real-time PCR shows

that miR-218 was up-regulated during osteogenic differentiation. Overexpression of exogenous miR-218 enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas inhibition of miR-218 would suppress osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, miR-218 directly targeted SFRP2 and DKK2, which is a WNT signaling pathway antagonist, and enhanced Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity. Finally, we found that mimicking Wnt/beta-catenin signal strengthened the expression level of miR-218, while blocking the signal attenuated the expression level of miR-218. This feed-forward Crenolanib ic50 regulatory circuit provides additional insight into how miRNAs acting as a signal amplifier interact with signal molecules during hASCs osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, we have established a regulatory network with a central role for the miR-218 in hASCs osteogenic differentiation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“INTRODUCTION Chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic functions in the initiation and maintenance of immune reactions. They have also been shown to regulate other processes such as cancer progression and cancer cell migration.

A comprehensive risk-benefit analysis is needed to avoid both und

A comprehensive risk-benefit analysis is needed to avoid both under- and over-treatment. This analysis should cover patients preferences, vulnerability, resources and functionality. Some simple treatment rules may improve drug treatment in the elderly, but an improved characterization of drugs and treatment strategies with regard to the elderly is essential.”
“Objective: Household food access remains a concern among primarily agricultural households

in lower- and middle-income countries. We examined the associations among Selleck Momelotinib domains representing livelihood assets (human capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital and financial capital) and household food access.\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional survey (two questionnaires) on livelihood assets.\n\nSetting: Metropolitan Pillaro, Ecuador; Cochabamba, Bolivia; and Huancayo, Peru.\n\nSubjects: Households (n 570) involved in small-scale agricultural production in 2008.\n\nResults: Food access, defined as the number of months of adequate food provisioning in the previous year, was relatively good; 41% of the respondents indicated to have had no difficulty in obtaining food for their household in the past year. Using bivariate analysis, key livelihood assets indicators associated with better household food access were identified as: age of household survey respondent (P=0.05), participation in agricultural associations (P=0.09), church membership

(P=0.08), area of irrigated land (P=0.08), housing material (P=0.06), buy PFTα space within the household residence (P=0.02) and satisfaction with health status (P=0.02). In path models both direct and indirect effects were observed, underscoring the complexity of the relationships between livelihood assets and household food access. Paths significantly associated with better household Selisistat solubility dmso food access included: better housing conditions (P=0.01), more space within the household residence (P=0.001) and greater satisfaction with health status (P=0.001).\n\nConclusions: Multiple factors were associated with household food access in these pen-urban agricultural

households. Food security intervention programmes focusing on food access need to deal with both agricultural factors and determinants of health to bolster household food security in challenging lower- and middle-income country contexts.”
“The experiment was conducted with 300 gilts with initial weight of 25.00+/-0.54kg, from 60 to 100 days of age, to evaluate the effects of digestible lysine percentages on performance and carcass traits of the animals. The gilts were allotted in a randomized block design, with five treatments (percentages of digestible lysine), five replicates, and twelve animals per experimental unit. The treatments applied were 0.65; 0.75; 0.85; 0.95 and 1.05% of digestible lysine. No effects of treatments on the daily feed intake of the gilts were observed.

Furthermore, the complexity of MEG data acquisition and data anal

Furthermore, the complexity of MEG data acquisition and data analysis requires special attention when describing MEG studies in publications, in order to facilitate interpretation see more and reproduction of the results. This manuscript aims at making recommendations for a number of important data acquisition and data analysis steps and suggests details that should be specified in manuscripts reporting MEG studies. These recommendations will hopefully serve as guidelines that help to strengthen the position of the MEG research community within the field of neuroscience, and may foster discussion in order to further enhance the quality and impact of

MEG research. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Rapid this website detection of the hydrogen peroxide precursor of peroxide explosives is required in numerous security screening applications. We describe a highly sensitive and selective amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide vapor at an agarose-coated Prussian-blue (PB) modified thick-film carbon transducer. The sensor responds rapidly and reversibly to dynamic changes in the level of the peroxide vapor, with no apparent carry over and with a detection limit of 6 ppbv. The remarkable selectivity of the PB-based screen-printed electrode towards hydrogen peroxide leads to effective discrimination against common beverage samples. For example, blind tests have demonstrated the ability to selectively

and non-invasively identify concealed hydrogen peroxide in drinking cups and bottles. The attractive performance of the VX-661 mouse new microfabricated PB-based amperometric peroxide vapor sensor indicates great potential for addressing a wide range of security screening and surveillance applications.”
“To account for individual differences in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, studies have examined the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

(HPA) axis functioning and personality. The present study examined the relationship between the free fraction of cortisol in saliva after awakening and personality as measured with Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory [Cloninger, C.R., Przybeck, T.R., Svrakic, D.M., Wetzel, R.D., 1994. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Guide to its Development and Use. Washington University, Center for Psychobiology of Personality, St. Louis, MO] in 107 healthy male soldiers. Harm avoidance explained 9% of variance in cortisol levels after awakening (AUCG), and harm avoidance and self-directedness predicted 10% of variance in mean cortisol increase. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was lower in participants with low scores on harm avoidance, and mean cortisol increase after awakening was higher in soldiers high on self-directedness and harm avoidance. These results show that the CAR is related to personality and that it can be used to examine individual differences in HPA (re)activity. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

A subsequent lesion of the SCN restored FAA We conclude that in

A subsequent lesion of the SCN restored FAA. We conclude that in intact animals, FAA may only occur when the DMH

inhibits the activity of the SCN, thus permitting SB202190 chemical structure locomotor activity. As a result, FAA originates from a neuronal network comprising an interaction between the DMH and SCN. Moreover, this study shows that the DMH-SCN interaction may serve as an intrahypothalamic system to gate activity instead of rest overriding circadian predetermined temporal patterns.”
“RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) and SIMILAR TO RCD ONE1 (SRO1) are the only two proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome containing both a putative poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase catalytic domain and a WWE protein-protein interaction domain, although similar proteins have been found in other eukaryotes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases mediate the attachment of ADP-ribose

units from donor NAD(+) molecules to target proteins and have been implicated in a number of processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. We have isolated mutants in both RCD1 and SRO1, rcd1-3 and sro1-1, respectively. rcd1-3 plants display phenotypic defects as reported for previously isolated alleles, most notably reduced stature. In addition, rcd1-3 mutants display a number of additional developmental defects in root architecture and maintenance of reproductive development. While single mutant sro1-1 plants are relatively normal, loss of a single dose of SRO1 in the rcd1-3 background increases the severity of several developmental defects, implying that these genes do share some functions. However, selleck products rcd1-3 and sro1-1 mutants behave differently in several developmental events and abiotic stress responses, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Remarkably, rcd1-3; sro1-1 double mutants

display severe defects in embryogenesis and postembryonic development. This selleck study shows that RCD1 and SRO1 are at least partially redundant and that they are essential genes for plant development.”
“An efficient solvent-free method for the preparation of esters from various aromatic and aliphatic acids with primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols using a heterogeneous phosphine reagent, silphos [PCl3-n(SiO2)(n)], in good yields is reported.”
“Combining the SRIM’06 computer code and the formula for spectral-angular distribution of radiation from a particle moving in a medium in arbitrary trajectory, we studied numerically the structure of angular distributions of Cherenkov radiation from moderately relativistic heavy ions (RHI) taking into account the decrease of the ion velocity due to stopping in the radiator. The results obtained clearly show that the width and the fine structure of the Cherenkov radiation in the vicinity of the Cherenkov cone depend strongly on several factors, e.g. the mean and total energy losses, the radiator thickness, the square of the ion charge, the emission wavelength and the refractive index of the radiator material.

Conclusions: Conduct disorder is consistently associated with

\n\nConclusions: Conduct disorder is consistently associated with violence in intimate relationships. Controlling for CD, there is also an association between ADHD and IPV. Results suggest the need for services and treatment strategies that specifically address the risks for violence and promote healthy intimate relationships for youths with CD and ADHD.”
“When estimating the time since

death or manner of death, the identification and the pathological NCT-501 evaluations of a body are generally impeded by post mortem changes. Research and case studies help experts to achieve a more accurate diagnosis, but at present there is scant literature covering topics concerning forensic science and decompositional processes in aquatic environments. The two case studies presented each

involve a decomposed body found in a unique aquatic environment; namely wells containing ground water. In Case 1 an entomologist attended the scene and in Case 2 an entomologist was only involved after 20 months when it was decided that the insect evidence collected at the second autopsy may be useful in determining a time frame. The first case highlights the problems Salubrinal associated with body retrieval from aquatic environments as the body was removed it dismembered. Fortunately, the well was able to be drained, so much of the insect evidence was retrieved. In the second case the body was found dismembered but the 3-Methyladenine research buy entomological evidence was overlooked and lost. During the second autopsy insects were found, collected, and sent to an entomologist to help clarify the post mortem interval.”
“We measured a significantly low off-state current (135 yA/mu m at 85 degrees C) of a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor using indium-gallium-zinc

oxide (IGZO), which is an oxide semiconductor material. Note that “y” is 10(-24). A transistor in which the hydrogen concentration in an IGZO film is lowered (5 x 10(19) cm(-3) or lower) was used. To estimate the minute current accurately, we established a measurement method in which changes in the amount of electrical charge are measured for a long time. Such extremely low off-state current characteristics show promise for new applications of IGZO transistors in memories. (C) 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study.

Overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) protei

Overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) protein can delay axonal degeneration initiated via axotomy, chemotherapeutic agents, or genetic mutations.

The Wlds protein consists of the N-terminal portion of the ubiquitination factor Ube4b fused to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (Nmnat1). We previously showed that the Nmnat1 portion Buparlisib of this fusion protein was the critical moiety for Wld(s)-mediated axonal protection. Here, we describe the development of an automated quantitative assay for assessing axonal degeneration. This method successfully showed that Nmnat1 enzymatic activity is important

for axonal protection as mutants with reduced enzymatic activity lacked axon protective activity. We also found that Nmnat enzymes with diverse sequences and structures from various species, including Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and archaebacterium Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which encodes a protein with no homology to eukaryotic Nmnat enzymes, all mediate robust axonal protection after axotomy. Besides the importance of Nmnat enzymatic activity, we did not observe selleckchem changes in the steady-state NAD(+) level, and we found that inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), which synthesizes substrate for Nmnat in mammalian cells, did not affect the protective activity of Nmnat1. These results provide the possibility of a role for new Nmnat enzymatic activity in axonal protection in addition to NAD(+) synthesis.”
“Saccharomyces selleck chemical cerevisiae bioluminescent bioreporter assays were developed previously to assess a chemical’s estrogenic or androgenic disrupting potential. S. cerevisiae BLYES, S. cerevisiae BLYAS, S. cerevisiae BLYR, were used to assess their reproducibility and utility in screening 68, 69, and 71 chemicals for estrogenic, androgenic, and toxic effects, respectively. EC(50) values were 6.3 +/- 2.4 x 10(-10)M (n = 18) and 1.1 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8)M (n = 13) for BLYES

and BLYAS, using 17 beta-estradiol and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone over concentration ranges of 2.5 x 10(-12) through 1.0 x 10(-6)M, respectively. Based on analysis of replicate standard curves and comparison to background controls, a set of quantitative rules have been formulated to interpret data and determine if a chemical is potentially hormonally active, toxic, both, or neither. The results demonstrated that these assays are applicable for Tier I chemical screening in Environmental Protection Agency’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program as well as for monitoring endocrine-disrupting activity of unknown chemicals in water.”
“Demonstration of equivalence in aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD; e.g.

1-LMP-1 or LMP-1 siRNA Compared with the blank control, the cell

1-LMP-1 or LMP-1 siRNA. Compared with the blank control, the cell apoptosis rates were decreased by 10.31 and 12.05% after pcDNA3.1-LMP-1 transfection and increased by 41.48 and 35.63% after lentiviral LMP-1 siRNA infection in the SNK-6 and SNT-8 cells. Survivin expression was induced by Selonsertib concentration LMP-1, and the effect was attenuated by inhibitors of survivin, NF-kappa B and PI3K/Akt. Reduction in cell apoptosis by LMP-1 was also inhibited by inhibitors of survivin, NF-kappa B and PI3K/Akt. For the in vivo assay, tumor-bearing mice were established

by subcutaneous injection with differentially treated SNT-8 cells into the back of the nude mice, and the tumor growth in the different groups was recorded. The results revealed that tumor formation and growth were also inhibited by treatment with survivin, NF-kappa B and PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Collectively, LMP-1-induced survivin expression inhibited cell apoptosis through the NF-kappa B and PI3K/Akt pathways, and survivin may be a new target for the treatment of NKTL induced by EBV.”
“Mutations in the additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1) gene were

recently shown in various myeloid malignancies, but they have not been comprehensively investigated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we analyzed ASXL1 mutations in exon 12 in 501 adults with de novo AML. ASXL1 mutations were detected in 54 patients (10.8%), 8.9% among those with normal karyotype and 12.9% among those with abnormal cytogenetics. The mutation was closely associated with older age, male sex, isolated trisomy 8, RUNX1 mutation, and expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR and CD34, but inversely associated selleck chemical with t(15; 17), complex cytogenetics, FLT3-internal tandem duplication, selleck compound NPM1 mutations, WT1 mutations, and expression of CD33 and CD15. Patients with ASXL1 mutations had a shorter overall survival than patients without, but the mutation was not an independent adverse prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. Sequential analyses showed that the original ASXL1 mutations were lost at relapse and/or refractory status in 2 of the 6 relapsed ASXL1-mutated patients studied, whereas 2 of the 109 ASXL1-wild patients acquired a novel ASXL1

mutation at relapse. In conclusion, AML bearing ASXL1 mutations showed distinct clinical and biological features. The ASXL1 mutation status can change during disease evolution in a few patients. (Blood.2010;116(20):4086-4094)”
“Osteoblasts undergo apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo in response to high dose glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, hindering the prevention and treatment of this side-effect. Apoptosis was induced by dexamethasone (Dex) in murine MBA-15.4 osteoblasts within 24-48 h of treatment. We found dose- and time-dependent upregulation of Bim protein, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, with highest levels at 24-48 h for 1 mu M Dex. This was also observed in primary human bone marrow stromal cells.