These proteins were fully functional and CpmtFNR was capable of t

These proteins were fully functional and CpmtFNR was capable of transferring

electrons from NADPH to CpmtFd in a cytochrome c-coupled assay that followed a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Apicomplexan mtFd and mtFNR proteins were evolutionarily divergent from their counterparts in humans and animals and could be explored as potential drug targets in Cryptosporidium and other apicomplexans.”
“Purpose: Little research has been conducted on the epidemiology of urinary incontinence in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We examined prevalence, incidence and risk factors for urinary incontinence among women with type 2 diabetes in the NHS (Nurses’ Health Study) and NHS buy ABT-263 II.

Materials and Methods: We obtained urinary incontinence information at study baseline (2000 in NHS and 2001 in NHS II) and 2 followup periods (2002 and 2004 in the NHS, and 2003 and 2005 in the NHS II). Among women with type 2 diabetes we calculated the prevalence of urinary incontinence for 9,994

women with baseline urinary incontinence information, and urinary incontinence incidence rates for 4,331 women with no urinary incontinence 3-Methyladenine supplier at baseline and urinary incontinence information during followup. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios and relative risks were estimated for associations between possible risk factors and urinary incontinence.

Results: The prevalence of at least monthly urinary incontinence was 48% and at least weekly urinary incontinence was 29% among women with type 2 diabetes, and the corresponding incidence rates were 9.1 and 3.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. White race, higher body mass index, higher parity,

lower physical activity, current postmenopausal hormone use and diuretic use were risk factors for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence in this study, and hysterectomy, vascular disease and longer duration of diabetes were associated with increased odds of prevalent urinary incontinence only. Increasing age and microvascular complications were associated with a greater risk of frequent urinary incontinence.

Conclusions: Urinary incontinence was common in this study of women with type 2 diabetes. We identified multiple risk factors for urinary incontinence Cell press in these women, several of which suggest ways to reduce urinary incontinence.”
“Matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) and its endogenous inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), regulate homeostasis and turnover of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). They play important roles in acute cerebral infarction (ACI). The contributions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 to the early stages of ACI are not completely understood. This study investigates the time course of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and their relations to edema after ACI in rats.

The keys for hepatitis C virus identification

The keys for hepatitis C virus identification selleck chemical have been determined at the genus, species, genotype and subtype levels. Secondary structure nucleotide substitutions were characteristics to the genus included in a complex stem-loop structure composed of 112-115 nucleotides. Due

to the worldwide importance of hepatitis C virus, and the difficulties encountered in the control of the disease, it is, therefore, important to understand the genetic aspects of the virus. The application of the PNS method might represent an additional useful tool for determining the genetic variations among hepatitis C virus strains. The identification of viral types or subtypes based on genetic changes should improve our understanding of hepatitis C virus and might provide markers for biological differences, such as virulence, and improve understanding of the

evolution of the virus. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Although the concepts of secondary injury and neuroprotection after neurotrauma are experimentally selleck chemicals llc well supported, clinical trials of neuroprotective agents in traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury have been disappointing. Most strategies to date have used drugs directed toward a single pathophysiological mechanism that contributes to early necrotic cell death. Given these failures, recent research has increasingly focused on multifunctional (i.e., multipotential, pluripotential) agents that target multiple injury mechanisms, particularly those that occur later after the insult. Here we review two such approaches that show particular promise in experimental neurotrauma: cell cycle

inhibitors and small Tacrolimus (FK506) cyclized peptides. Both show extended therapeutic windows for treatment and appear to share at least one important target.”
“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide in individuals under the age of 45 years, and, despite extensive efforts to develop neuroprotective therapies, there has been no successful outcome in any trial of neuroprotection to date. In addition to recognizing that many TBI clinical trials have not been optimally designed to detect potential efficacy, the failures can be attributed largely to the fact that most of the therapies investigated have been targeted toward an individual injury factor. The contemporary view of TBI is that of a very heterogenous type of injury, one that varies widely in etiology, clinical presentation, severity, and pathophysiology. The mechanisms involved in neuronal cell death after TBI involve an interaction of acute and delayed anatomic, molecular, biochemical, and physiological events that are both complex and multifaceted. Accordingly, neuropharmacotherapies need to be targeted at the multiple injury factors that contribute to the secondary injury cascade, and, in so doing, maximize the likelihood of a successful outcome.

“The objectives of the study are to develop a cost-effecti

“The objectives of the study are to develop a cost-effectiveness model comparing biological therapy (BT) with methotrexate (MTX) alone, in the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), combining clinical and quality-of-life data from international trials with local costs and local epidemiological data. We designed a six-month cycle Markov model with five functional

states, based on Health Assessment Questionnaire, with patients initiating treatment in any of the predefined states, based on a sample of 150 local RA patients. Simulations ran for 10 and 20 years, and for the whole life span. Utilities, in quality-adjusted life years (QALY), were taken from international literature. Discount rate was 3 % for costs and utilities. JNK-IN-8 ic50 We calculated direct and indirect costs using a combination of international and local data. Results are presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). ICERs in euros per QALY were a,not sign143,072 for 10 years; a,not sign139,332 for 20 years; and a,not sign137,712 for the whole life span. Total costs with MTX were lower than with BT, despite

higher out of pocket, productivity, and complication costs. Under conventional thresholds, and for the “”average”" RA patient, BT would not be cost-effective in Colombia. BT compared to MTX provides more QALYs, but at a high cost. When ICERs were estimated for Colombia, BT would not be cost-effective. We propose different thresholds for different conditions, perhaps prioritizing chronic diseases that lead Anti-infection inhibitor to disability.”
“The aim of this study was to validate the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) preliminary criteria for fibromyalgia (FM) in an Iranian population. In this multicenter prospective Rutecarpine study, we enrolled 168 FM patients

and 110 controls. All participants underwent dolorimetry examination by study assessors and completed a questionnaire containing variables of both the ACR 2010 preliminary and ACR 1990 criteria. We compared the performance of the ACR 2010 criteria with the expert diagnosis as well as the ACR 1990 criteria. Receiver operator characteristic analyses and Youden index were used to evaluate the test characteristics of a set of different cutoff points for two subcomponents of ACR 2010 criteria including widespread pain index (WPI) and symptom severity (SS) scale. Considering expert diagnosis as the gold standard, the ACR 2010 criteria showed comparable specificity with ACR 1990 (92.8 vs. 88.3 %, P = 0.073), but lower sensitivity (58.9 vs. 71.4 %, P = 0.003) and a tendency for lower accuracy (72.4 vs. 78.4 %, P = 0.105). Applying the ACR 1990 criteria as the gold standard, we observed a trend toward an increase in overall accuracy (72.4 vs. 79.1 %, P = 0.064).

Reduced spectral power in posterior regions correlated with

Reduced spectral power in posterior regions correlated with

decreased area of the posterior segments of the corpus callosum. Atypical cortical oscillatory activity is associated with reduced transcallosal connectivity in children with spina bifida. NeuroReport 20:1188-1192 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“GLYX-13 (threonine-proline-proline-threonine-amide) is an amidated di-pyrrolidine that acts as a functional partial agonist at the glycine site on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate buy GSK2118436 receptors (NMDARs). GLYX-13 can both increase NMDAR conductance at NR2B-containing receptors, and reduce conductance of non-NR2B-containing receptors. Here, we report that GLYX-13 potently reduces delayed (24 Selleckchem MK-0518 h) death of CA1 pyramidal neurons produced by bilateral carotid occlusion in Mongolian

gerbils, when administered up to 5 h post-ischemia. GLYX-13 also reduced delayed (24 h) neuronal death of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus principal neurons elicited by oxygen/glucose deprivation in in-vitro hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, when applied up to 2 h post-oxygen/glucose deprivation. The glycine site full agonist D-serine completely occluded neuroprotection, indicating that GLYX-13 acts by modulating activation of this site. NeuroReport 20:1193-1197 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Spectrotemporal receptive fields of nonlinear neurons in primary auditory cortex are stimulus dependent or context dependent. Here we show that a variant of stimulus-specific adaptation also contributes to this context dependence. Responses to sound stimulus frequencies close to the neuron’s best frequency adapt with an average time constant of approximately 7 s. In contrast, responses away from the best frequency do not adapt, but in fact slightly increase Rebamipide over our 30-s observation window. Such stimulus-specific

adaptation could function in enhancing stimulus discrimination and in maximizing neural information transmission by reducing redundancy. It also needs to be taken into account when comparing spectrotemporal receptive fields measured under adapted and nonadapted conditions. NeuroReport 20:1198-1203 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“During the past 12 years, lentiviral vectors have emerged as valuable tools for transgene delivery because of their ability to transduce nondividing cells and their capacity to sustain long-term transgene expression. Despite significant progress, the production of high-titer high-quality lentiviral vectors is cumbersome and costly. The most commonly used method to produce lentiviral vectors involves transient transfection using calcium phosphate (CaP)-mediated precipitation of plasmid DNAs. However, inconsistencies in pH can cause significant batch-to-batch variations in lentiviral vector titers, making this method unreliable.

We also compared the antiamyloidogenic activity of pheophorbide a

We also compared the antiamyloidogenic activity of pheophorbide a with that of other porphyrin-related compounds. NeuroReport 20:1214-1218 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The level of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA is likely to

be an important marker of the long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A new method was developed for quantifying HIV-1 selleck chemicals group M proviral DNA using TaqMan real-time PCR, in which degenerate primers and an MGB probe were used to resolve the difference in amplification efficiencies among different su btypes. The present assay provided good linearity and accuracy in the range of 4-5000 copies of proviral DNA in 0.5 mu g of cellular DNA. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients were selleck <31.6% and <30.1%, respectively. In 19 HIV-1 clinical isolates Of six subtypes (A, B, C, CRF01_AE, F, and G), quantitation values by the real-time PCR assay matched closely those by Poisson distribution analysis of PCR results at endpoint dilution (R(2) = 0.988). This assay is characterized by the use of degenerate primers and having been validated by comparing with a Poisson distribution-based assay. The present real-time PCR assay is highly sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate,

and independent of group M subtypes. The assay will be useful for studying the relationship between HIV-1 proviral loads and the long-term efficacy of antiretroviral therapy for subtype B as well as non-B subtype strains. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

study examined the cerebral functional lateralization, from a phonological perspective, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children (TDC). With near infrared spectroscopy, we measured auditory evoked-responses in the temporal areas to phonemic and prosodic contrasts in word contexts. The results of TDC showed stronger left-dominant and right-dominant responses to phonemic and prosodic differences, respectively. Furthermore, although ASD children SPTLC1 displayed similar tendencies, the functional asymmetry for phonemic changes was relatively weak, suggesting less-specialized left-brain functions. The typical asymmetry for the prosodic condition was further discussed in terms of acoustic-physical perceptual ability of ASD children. The study revealed differential neural recruitment in decoding phonetic cues between ASD children and TDC and verified the applicability of near infrared spectroscopy as a suitable neuroimaging method for children with developmental disorders. NeuroReport 20:1219-1224 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“A restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (RFLP) was developed to differentiate Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) isolates according to phylogenetic clades by examining restriction patterns from partial 3′ non-coding region (NCR) genomic fragments (approx. 420 bp).

“This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dys

“This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight

related body image. Significant moderate positive correlations (Pearson’s r) between selected variables were found, suggesting that participants with high levels of dysmorphic concern (imagined ugliness) have more difficulty with the affective Wortmannin elements of alexithymia, that is, identifying and describing feelings.

When depression, eating attitudes, and weight-related body image concerns were controlled for, significant moderate positive correlations between this alexithymia factor and dysmorphic concerns remained present. An independent-samples t-test between eating-disordered participants with and without symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) revealed significant group differences in difficulties identifying feelings. This pattern of results was replicated when the groups were identified on the basis of dysmorphic click here concerns, as opposed to BDD symptoms. This study highlights the associations between alexithymia and body dysmorphia that have not previously

been demonstrated. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The nuclear egress complex (NEC) is required for efficient translocation of newly synthesized herpesvirus Fossariinae nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytosol. It consists of the type II membrane protein pUL34 which interacts with pUL31 at the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To map regions within pUL34 required for nuclear membrane targeting and pUL31 interaction, we constructed deletion/substitution mutations. Previously, we showed that 50 C-terminal amino acids (aa) of pseudorabies virus (PrV) pUL34, including the transmembrane domain, could be functionally replaced by cellular lamina-associated polypeptide 2 beta (Lap2 beta) sequences. In contrast, replacement of the C-terminal 100 aa abrogated complementation but not pUL31 interaction. To further delineate essential sequences within this region, C-terminal pUL34 truncations of 60, 70, 80, 85, and 90 aa fused to Lap2 beta sequences were generated. While truncations up to 85 aa were functional, deletion of the C- terminal 90 aa abrogated function, which indicates that the important region is located between aa 171 and 176. Amino acids 173 to 175 represent RQR, a motif suggested to mediate INM targeting. Mutagenesis to RQG revealed that the mutant protein exhibited pronounced Golgi localization, but a fraction still reached the INM.

We show that including

unsynchronized food-mediated migra

We show that including

unsynchronized food-mediated migration would make the behaviour of a plankton model more realistic. This would imply a significant enhancement of ecosystem’s stability and some additional mechanisms of regulation of algal blooms. In the system with food-mediated unsynchronized vertical migration, the control of phytoplankton by herbivorous becomes possible even for very large concentrations of nutrients in the water (formally, when the system’s carrying capacity tends to infinity). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Adult rats were used to identify the effects of infrasound on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. After 7 consecutive days’ exposure to infrasound of see more 16 Hz at 130 dB, immunostaining of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) was preformed. Compared with those in normal groups, the numbers of BrdU(+) and DCX(+)/BrdU(+) cells in the subgranular zone in infrasound groups were significantly decreased at 3, 6, 10 and 14 days and returned to normal at 18 days. The percentage of BrdU(+) cells that were co-labeled with DCX showed no significant differences between the infrasound and normal groups. These data suggest that infrasound inhibits the cell proliferation in adult rat dentate gyrus but has no effects on early migration and differentiation

of these newborn cells. NeuroReport 21:585-589 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Regulation selleck compound of mRNA translation has been held responsible Idoxuridine for effects of diet, age, alcohol, hormones, hibernation, disease

and hypoxia on protein synthesis in animal tissues. Dietary effects are due to concentrations of amino acids and insulin in circulation that affect activities of two key translational regulators, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (172) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein I (Bp). To construct a platform for prediction of global protein synthesis to nutritional stimuli, a dynamic, mechanistic model of translational control in whole tissues was developed. The model was composed of a set of differential equations which describe the dynamics of I I state variables: tRNA and acyl-tRNA for leucine (Leu), limiting (Laa) and other amino acids (Oaa), inactivated F2 with GDP (F2d), activated F2 with GTP (F2t), F4e, Bp and its complex with F4e (4eBp), available rnRNA start codons (AUG), and active ribosomes (Arib). Material was assumed to flow from one variable to another according to mass-action kinetics or Michaelis-Menten form. Uncharged tRNA inhibit GTP exchange on eIF2, and free amino acids and insulin inhibit reversible sequestration of F4e by Bp. Initial conditions and parameters were set for a skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate of 10%/d and ribosome transit time of 80 s.

Since then, the appetite suppressants fenfluramine and dexfenflur

Since then, the appetite suppressants fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, the dopamine agonists pergolide and cabergoline, and more recently, the recreational drug ecstasy (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) have been implicated. Results from clinical trials show that drug dose and treatment duration affect both the risk of developing the disease and its severity. The natural history of the disease remains

unclear, although regression of valvular lesions after the end of treatment has been reported. Interference with serotonin metabolism and its associated receptors and transporter selleck chemicals llc gene seems a likely mechanism for development of the drug-induced valvular heart disease. Physicians need to balance the benefits of continued therapy with these drugs against possible risks. Further investigation is needed to assist with treatment decisions. Continued vigilance is necessary because several commonly prescribed treatments interact with serotonergic pathways.”

Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may be more durable than the pulsatile-flow devices.


In this randomized trial, we enrolled patients with

advanced heart failure who Vemurafenib nmr were ineligible for transplantation, in a 2: 1 ratio, to undergo implantation of a continuous-flow device (134 patients) or the currently approved pulsatile-flow device (66 patients). The

primary composite end point was, at 2 years, survival free from disabling stroke and reoperation to repair or replace the device. Secondary end points included survival, frequency of adverse events, the quality of life, and functional capacity.


Preoperative characteristics were similar in the two treatment groups, with a median age of 64 years (range, 26 to 81), a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 17%, and nearly 80% of patients receiving intravenous inotropic agents. The primary composite end point was achieved in more patients with continuous-flow devices than with pulsatile-flow devices (62 of 134 [46%] vs. 7 of 66 [11%]; P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.54; P<0.001), and patients with continuous-flow devices Racecadotril had superior actuarial survival rates at 2 years (58% vs. 24%, P = 0.008). Adverse events and device replacements were less frequent in patients with the continuous-flow device. The quality of life and functional capacity improved significantly in both groups.


Treatment with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device in patients with advanced heart failure significantly improved the probability of survival free from stroke and device failure at 2 years as compared with a pulsatile device. Both devices significantly improved the quality of life and functional capacity. ( number, NCT00121485.

For each cell pair, we measured the onsets of the off-cell pause

For each cell pair, we measured the onsets of the off-cell pause and the on-cell burst. Contrary to what would be expected if on-cells were inhibitory interneurons, off-cells typically ceased firing before on-cells began reflex-related firing, with a mean 481 (+/- 69) ms lag between the final off-cell spike and the first on-cell spike. This suggests Selleck CH5183284 that on-cells do not mediate the off-cell pause, and points instead to presynaptic mechanisms in opioid-mediated disinhibition of medullary output neurons. These data also support an independent role for on-cells in pain modulation. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Carbon tetrachloride

(CCl(4)), a water disinfection by-product, at low environmentally relevant concentrations exerts adverse effects on mammals.The unicellular microalga Dunaliella salina possessing

a remarkable degree of environmental adaptation was selected as test organism to investigate low-level exposure to CCl(4). With incubation with less than 0.13% CCl(4), algae responses were similar to control as evidenced by cell growth and levels of beta-carotene, a marker of adaptation. The maximal concentration of CCl(4) that D. salina could tolerate was 0.2%. Algae incubated with more than LY2835219 purchase 0.32% CCl(4) showed decreased growth and reduced beta-carotene levels, which were nondetected after a few days. However, after 98 d, D. salina seemed to revive as evidenced by growth and returned to the biomass similar to control in another 25 d. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to compare the genomic DNA difference between control and recovered cells. Polymorphic and repeatable RAPD bands indicated that

chronic effects of CCl(4) to D. salina led generation of altered genomic DNA, which may enable the microalga to adapt to survival in an apparently toxic substance environment.”
“Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy which is considered a cellular correlate of learning and memory. It has been shown Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) that both, stimuli with emotional/motivational content and the electrical stimulation the basolateral amygdala, can modulate hippocampal LTP. The nucleus accumbens is part of the ventral striatum and is composed of two main regions: core and shell. Core and shell share a similar cellular composition, but differ in their connectivity with other brain areas. Considering that the nucleus accumbens is related to motivation and that it receives a strong projection from the basolateral amygdala, we have studied the effect of stimulating accumbens shell or core on medial perforant path-granule cells’ UP in anesthetized male Wistar rats. We found that electrical stimulation of the shell enhances the magnitude of UP while the stimulation of the core completely prevents UP induction. The stimulation of the accumbens shell or core alone produced no apparent, direct field potential in dentate gyrus.

For example, liver uptake [Cu-64]ch14 18-p-NH2-Bn-NOTA was 4 74 +

For example, liver uptake [Cu-64]ch14.18-p-NH2-Bn-NOTA was 4.74 +/- 0.77 per cent of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), and for [Cu-64]ch14.18-SarAr was 8.06 0.77 %ID/g. Differences in tumor targeting correlated with variations in tumor size rather than which BEG was used.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that differences in the thermodynamic stability of these chelator-Cu(II) complexes were not associated with significant differences in uptake of the tracer by the tumor.

However, there were significant differences in tracer concentration in other tissues, including those involved in clearance of the radioimmunoconjugate (e.g., liver and spleen). (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The Fontan-type procedure has undergone 2 major modifications, including intra-atrial baffling and extracardiac conduit. To clarify the effect of these modifications on arrhythmia propensity, we analyzed chronologic changes in P-wave characteristics after atriopulmonary connection, intra-atrial baffling, or extracardiac conduit.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was

conducted on electrocardiographic data from 40 patients with tricuspid atresia who underwent the Fontan-type procedure and follow- up for greater than 5 years: 18 had atriopulmonary connection, 13 had intra-atrial baffling, and 9 had EX 527 price extracardiac conduit. The mean follow- up period in years was 19.8 for atriopulmonary connection, 13.3 for intra-atrial baffling, and 8.0 for extracardiac conduit. We analyzed chronologic changes in P-wave duration, dispersion, and amplitude and prevalence of Selleck CHIR 99021 sinus node dysfunction.

Results: Atrial tachyarrhythmia

was documented in 9 patients with atriopulmonary connection but not in any patients with extracardiac conduit or intra-atrial baffling. Both P-wave maximum duration and dispersion decreased slightly over time with extracardiac conduit but increased progressively in the intra-atrial baffling and atriopulmonary connection groups. Intra-atrial baffling resulted in significantly shorter P-wave duration than atriopulmonary connection, whereas extracardiac conduit had significantly shorter P-wave duration and smaller dispersion than atriopulmonary connection and intra-atrial baffling. P-wave amplitude decreased markedly immediately after surgical intervention with intra-atrial baffling and extracardiac conduit but remained unchanged in patients undergoing atriopulmonary connection. Sinus node dysfunction was found commonly in all 3 groups.

Conclusion: After intra-atrial baffling, patients increasingly had prolonged P-wave duration and larger dispersion associated with sinus node dysfunction, suggesting a propensity to arrhythmia, although less progressive than seen in those undergoing atriopulmonary connection.