RO has two formats: 24-hour RO and classroom RO Classroom RO is

RO has two formats: 24-hour RO and classroom RO. Classroom RO is an intensive cognitive

retraining program conducted for about 30 minutes each day; 24-hour RO involves active orientation information cueing by all staff at every opportunity. RO, however, is beneficial only as long as the resident has the capacity to retain current information. Persons in the middle to late stage of dementia will not benefit from RO, and in some Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical instances can become frustrated and agitated when asked RO-type of questions. Validation therapy Validation therapy was developed by Naomi Feil in 1982. It. is an individual and group intervention that focuses on the emotional content of what, someone is saying versus the CDK inhibitor factual content. The therapist validates what, someone is saying by acknowledging the emotion (s) being expressed by the person (also referred to as “subjective reality”). This type of therapy has been observed to work especially Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical well with memory-impaired persons such as those with dementia..83 Reminiscence and life review Up until the 1960s, reminiscing by older adults was not. considered a healthy sign of aging. In 1961, however, Butler formulated the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical concept that, reviewing one’s life may be a positive

form of placing experiences in proper perspective and working through unresolved conflicts.84Empirical trials have been conducted using reminiscence and life review to reduce depression and anxiety and to increase feelings of self-esteem and life satisfaction in the elderly. Although results have been promising, findings have been inconsistent.85 A number of variables may contribute to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these differing impact rates such as the frequency and duration of the intervention, patient age, the setting (ie, a private residence or a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical long-term care facility), what measures of change are being used to assess treatment outcomes, whether the format is for individual or group therapy, and the use of other external stimuli such as music.86-91 Reminiscence therapy has become a popular form of treatment in individuals with dementia because it

depends more on personal experience than a factual recall of events.92,93 Also, reminiscence can help patients come to terms with their situation, especially old in the early stages of the disease when long-term memory of distant events is relatively preserved compared to short-term memory or the ability to recall recent events. Reminiscence or life review focuses on something the patient can still do and helps to maintain a sense of identity. The evidence for the effectiveness of reminiscence in individuals with dementia is generally positive. One study of 27 nursing home residents with dementia indicated that the self-reported level of depression in reminiscence group participants was positively- affected compared with participants in the supportive therapy and control groups.

5) Fig 5 Transthoracic echocardiographic image obtained after 1

5). Fig. 5 Transthoracic echocardiographic image obtained after 1 week of anticoagulation therapy shows near normal left ventricular wall motion and complete resolution of the apical thrombus. Discussion

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (stress-induced cardiomyopathy) is a relatively novel cardiac syndrome characterized by peculiar transient LV dysfunction. Approximately Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1-3% of the patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy show symptoms that initially mimic acute coronary syndrome.3),5) In this case, we did not performed coronary angiography, but we could tentatively diagnose as stress-induced cardiomyopathy because of the absent of buy ATM Kinase Inhibitor cardiovascular symptom and no serial changes of cardiac biomarkers in septic patient. Despite the favorable prognosis, certain serious complications have been reported in patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy, such as acute decompensated heart failure, ventricular arrhythmia, LV rupture, and LV thrombus.4),7-12) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Thrombus formation in such cases was probably related to transient apical asynergy combined with increased sympathetic activation,

which alters the coagulation cascade. To date, the true incidence and clinical significance of LV thrombus and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the related embolic outcomes in patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy have not been fully established. Haghi et al.11) reported an 8% incidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of LV thrombus in the study population, but a much lower incidence of accompanying embolic complications. They concluded

that LV thrombus can occur at the initial presentation or any time later during the disease. In our patient, the initial echocardiogram showed only apical ballooning and akinesia without any evidence of LV apical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical thrombus; however, thrombus formation occurred after a week and led to cerebral infarction. In a systematic review, de Gregorio et al.13) found that among 15 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy patients with ventricular thrombosis, 5 patients suffered from thromboembolic events, 3 of whom developed stroke. Therefore, physicians should be aware of this complication. The current treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy consists of Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II supportive care and standard treatments for LV systolic dysfunction. The role of anticoagulation therapy has not yet been defined. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published guidelines for the management of stress-induced cardiomyopathy with LV thrombus. However, some reports mention that short-term anticoagulation therapy with heparin and warfarin for several weeks resolved LV thrombus.8),9),11) In this case, LV thrombus was resolved after 1 week of anticoagulation therapy. From our review, we conclude that patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy appear to be at a significant risk for development of thrombus and subsequent stroke because of the marked apical wall motion abnormality.

These temperature-sensitive liposomes are designed to be stable

These temperature-sensitive liposomes are designed to be stable at the normal physiological temperature of 37°C but become significantly destabilized at slightly higher temperatures (Figure 1). The use of liposomes as the nanocarrier in these formulations is a particularly attractive option with respect to both enhanced tumor site accumulation, as well as facilitated selleck chemicals llc release of the encapsulated drug. This is attributed to the fact that a local increase in temperature has been shown

to enhance extravasation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of liposomes out of circulation resulting in their preferential accumulation to the heated tumor [21], and that liposomes are known to become destabilized at elevated temperatures [1, 2]. For example, we and others have previously shown that liposomes composed of various phospholipids are much Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical leakier at 37°C than those stored at 4°C [1, 3, 22]. Thus, the use of temperature-sensitive liposomes to deliver encapsulated chemotherapeutics to solid tumors such as breast cancer is an area of promising research, and many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical successful constructs have previously been reported. For example, liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), monostearoylphosphatidylcholine (MSPC), and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG 2000 are currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of recurrent breast cancer (

These lyso-lipid temperature-sensitive liposomes encapsulate doxorubicin and have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced drug release rates under mild hyperthermic conditions while remaining relatively stable at normal physiological temperature Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [23]. More recently, Tagami et al. have reported a similar liposome-based system in which the minor component MSPC is replaced with a nonionic surfactant Brij78 [24]. This new formulation outperformed the lyso-lipid temperature-sensitive liposomes when tested in mice inoculated with a

mammary carcinoma cell line (EMT-6). Chen et al. have also reported promising Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical results using thermosensitive liposomes prepared with DPPC, 1-myristoyl-2-palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine Idoxuridine (MPPC), and DSPE-PEG 2000 [25]. Figure 1 Temperature-sensitive liposomes designed to remain stable while in circulation at 37°C and become significantly destabilized in the tumor microenvironment at slightly higher temperatures 39–42°C. 2.2. Targeted Liposome-Based Chemotherapeutics Another strategy employed in order to potentially increase the overall therapeutic index of liposome-based drugs involves improving the colocalization between the chemotherapeutic and breast cancer cells. In some cases, this strategy may also involve improvement of cellular internalization of the whole liposome-based drug, particularly when cell-surface receptors known to undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis is concerned.

In the same tumor model, quantitative measurement of liposomal-b

In the same tumor model, quantitative measurement of liposomal-based tumor vascular permeability correlated

with the expression levels of angiogenic biomarkers, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2.40 The study demonstrated the benefit of liposomal contrast agent as an imaging surrogate for molecular profiling of angiogenic biomarkers within individual tumors. Monitoring Chemotherapy The use of liposomal contrast agents Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for prognostication and monitoring the efficacy of nano-chemotherapeutics has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. When injected intravenously into rats bearing a syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma, liposomal contrast

agent helped to predict the outcome of subsequent chemotherapy using a nanoparticle Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical chemotherapeutic, PEGylated liposomal inhibitors doxorubicin (PLD).33 The tumor uptake rate of liposomal contrast agent, as measured by the X-ray image using a clinical mammography system, correlated with the response of tumors upon treatment with PLD. Thus, in individual rats bearing tumors of identical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical size and morphology, those specific tumors that demonstrated high liposomal contrast agent uptake were most susceptible to treatment by PLD. If validated in the clinic, the liposomal contrast agent could be used as a prognosticator of liposomal chemotherapy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical outcome, providing obvious clinical value for personalizing therapy. Conclusion Blood pool iodinated agents represent a novel class of CT contrast agents. The preclinical applications described

here provide a glimpse of their potential use in cardiovascular imaging. Clinical translation of these agents could not only improve current imaging but also provide a new paradigm for detection and management of vascular diseases. Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal Conflict of Interest Statement and the following Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were reported: Drs. Annapragada and Hoffman are many founders and significant shareholders of Marval Biosciences Inc., and Dr. Ghaghada is a significant shareholder of Marval Biosciences Inc. Funding/Support: Drs. Annapragada’s and Hoffman’s work was partially funded by an unrestricted grant from Marval Biosciences Inc. and a grant from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (2R44EB04700) awarded to Marval Biosciences Inc. (PI: R. Lebovitz). Dr. Karathanasis has received funding support from the American Cancer Society (IRG-91-022-18) and pilot funding from the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (P30 “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”CA043703″,”term_id”:”24344623″,”term_text”:”CA043703″CA043703).

In broader and more useful terms, pharmacogenetics encompasses

In broader and more useful terms, pharmacogenetics encompasses

any genetically determined variation in response to drugs. This type of variation includes, for instance, the effect, of barbiturates in precipitating clinical disease in persons with acute intermittent porphyria, an autosomal dominant inherited disease associated with intermittent neurological dysfunction, as well as the effect, of alcohol use by pregnant women on the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Pharmacogenomics is the determination and analysis of the genome (DNA) and its products (RNA and proteins) as they relate to drug response.12 Medicine would surely be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical revolutionized if one could predict, a response before medication and provide a statistical probability of a good or bad response. Current, drug therapy is very much ”one size fits all,“ and the costs of the administration of ineffective drugs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and the compensation for serious ADRs of unsuitable medication are immense, not to mention the high number of deaths caused by severe ADRs. The long-term goal of pharmacogenetics is to one day offer personalized medicine, so that clinicians can choose the best treatment for each individual patient. Genetic variation and current testing for monogenic disorders It has been well known

for many years that DNA sequence is highly variable, even within populations. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DNA variation can be in the form of single nucleotide substitutions, the deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides, or the variable repetition of a number of nucleotides (small tandem repeats [STRs] or longer variable number of tandem repeats [VNTRs]). Neutral DNA changes or “variants” (with respect to selective pressures) are referred to as polymorphisms when their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rarest allele is present, in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical more than 1 % of chromosomes in a particular population. Mutations, on the other hand, are rare differences that occur in less than 1 % of the population

(usually much less than 1%) and have typically been discovered in the coding sequences of genes causing rare inherited diseases. How neutral the so-called polymorphisms really arc is merely assumed on the basis of their lack of direct association with a particular phenotype. However, it is feasible to assume that a particular variant may produce a particular phenotype when in combination with particular high throughput screening alleles of other such variants. Adenylyl cyclase The ability to screen particular genes for mutations has developed into an important diagnostic tool, and genetic testing for disorders that, are inherited in a mendelian fashion (primarily single-gene disorders, so-called monogenic) is already well established in medical practice. This is relatively easily performed for monogenic disorders when the causative gene is known, eg, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, various forms of muscular dystrophy, mental retardation, and late-onset neurological disorders.

In 1992, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported the first

In 1992, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported the first national guideline, emphasizing the emergency of the treatment of childhood diarrhea and the importance of zinc supplementation.3 Since then, a variety of trials have been established, lifescience especially in developing countries, to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea.4-13 The beneficial effects of zinc supplementation on childhood diarrhea have been discussed in several studies,8,9,14,15 yet the exact underlying mechanisms leading to these favorable effects are still unclear. Zinc is an essential trace element for humans.16,17

Some plausible mechanisms might be improved absorption Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of water and electrolytes by the intestine, faster regeneration of gut epithelium, increased levels of enterocyte brush

border enzymes, and enhanced immune response, conferring early clearance of diarrheal pathogens from the intestine.18,19 Given these findings, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical zinc supplementation is currently recommended as a universal treatment for all children with acute gastroenteritis.13,15 Be that as it may, some other scientists, particularly in developed countries, believe Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that there is not enough evidence to support its routine use.20 Despite the reported encouraging benefits of zinc supplementation in childhood (up to 18% decline in children with acute diarrhea frequency),12 the cost effectiveness of such treatment is still arguable.21-23 Although there are numerous studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of zinc supplementations in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis 7-11,14,24 and its proven effects on persistent diarrhea,25 there have been only a few studies about Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the potential beneficial effects of zinc supplementation on selected categories of acute diarrhea. The lack of a well-designed randomized trial assessing the effects of zinc supplements on the severity and duration of diarrhea in Iran, as a developing country, renders new research necessary. This study was, therefore, designed to compare the severity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and duration of diarrhea between patients with acute diarrhea who received zinc plus oral rehydration solution

(ORS) and those who received only routine ORS. Materials and Methods Study Design, Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria This double-blind randomized clinical Cell Stem Cell trial (RCT) recruited all 9-month to 5-year-old children who were admitted with acute watery diarrhea and moderate dehydration to the Children Ward of Motahari Hospital, Urmia, Iran in 2008. The exclusion criteria were comprised of diagnosed chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and malabsorption), severe malnutrition (weight curve was under 3% for age), dysentery and bloody diarrhea confirmed with the existence of red blood cells (RBC) or white blood cells (WBC) in stool examination (S/E), recent consumption of antibiotics, severe dehydration or persistent vomiting, recent consumption of zinc supplements (last month), and drug intolerance.

, De Groot 1984; Balota and Lorch 1986; Neely 1991; McNamara and

, De Groot 1984; Balota and Lorch 1986; Neely 1991; McNamara and Holbrook 2003). Our results provide a clear picture: the two semantic

tasks activated the same left-lateralized fronto-temporal network, recruiting the fusiform gyrus, the cingulate cortex, the IFG, and MFG, irrespective of the presence of a binary decision component. No linguistic task effects could be observed in the LIFG. However, silently thinking about a word’s meaning showed higher Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activation in inferior parietal brain areas compared to semantic categorization, but no brain area was more active for semantic categorization. Regarding associative priming effects, we found neural associative suppression effects in bilateral Abiraterone cost superior temporal brain areas, occipito-temporal, and medial frontal brain regions independently of the linguistic task. However, one brain area seemed to be selectively

activated as a function of the binary decision process, namely the right Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IFG. At the behavioral level for semantic categorization, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical there was a significant 30-msec associative priming effect indicating that lexical access was facilitated (cf., Meyer and Schvaneveldt 1971). No inhibition effects were observed as expected for experimental paradigms with short SOAs and low PRPs (cf., Neely 1977). For silently thinking about a word’s meaning, we observed high accuracy rates in the postscanning recognition-test with a significant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical positive correlation between hits and correct rejections emphasizing that participants

did well process the critical words. Neural associative suppression effects Observation of neural associative suppression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effects in a fronto-temporal network across both tasks indicates that semantic processing was facilitated for related compared to unrelated word pairs (Copland et al. 2003; Wheatley et al. 2005; Gold et al. 2006). In the present research, the neuroanatomical activation pattern of associative suppression effects in frontal and temporal brain areas is in line with the assumption that semantic processing necessitates that prefrontal brain regions interact with temporal brain regions (cf., Roskies et al. 2001). We propose that the neural associative Tryptophan synthase suppression effect in the STG and MTG likely reflects facilitated lexical access of the second word of an associatively related word pair at the level of the mental lexicon (cf., Howard et al. 1992; Fiebach et al. 2002). Temporal brain areas are discussed as being involved in accessing, selecting, gating, or retrieving semantic information stored in lexical entries of the mental lexicon (Roskies et al. 2001).

87 Although these results are correlational and do not allow caus

87 Although these results are correlational and do not allow causal interpretation, they suggest that societal transition may have adverse long-term effects, particularly on men (Figure 3) Figure 3. Trends in ischemic heart disease in the Russian Federation and the European Union by gender. Adapted from: Copyright © World Health Organization 2006 In a comparative study in Lithuanian and Swedish men,88 traditional CVD risk factors (systolic blood

pressure, smoking, dyslipidemia) did not differ, but striking differences in psychosocial CHD risk factors were found: Lithuanian men reported Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical significantly more job strain, lower social support, lower social Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical integration, less effective coping, lower self-esteem, and more vital exhaustion and depression than Swedish men; they were 4 times more likely to die from CHD than their Swedish counterparts. A similar pattern of findings was reported with regard to CVD morbidity in women from

Eastern European countries. This would suggest that women’s strategies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for coping with severe stress (asking for assistance) may be more cardioprotective than men’s coping strategies. Men faced with unexpected socioeconomic stressors (loss of work, job insecurity) and faced with threats to the male role (as breadwinner) tend Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to cope by excessive alcohol use, smoking, and social withdrawal89,90 Gender, depression, and CHD Like CHD, depression is a major health problem, with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 15 %.91 By the year 2020, it is estimated that disability

worldwide will be determined largely by depression and heart disease.92 It is known that major depression is twice Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as common in women as in men.93,94 The female predominance begins in adolescence and persists into middle age and early old age.95,96 The reasons for this gender difference are not fully understood. A substantial part can be attributed to gender role-related stressors to which women are more exposed than men, such as low socioeconomic status, lack of power, role overload, and sexual abuse, and associated psychological attributes such emotion-focused coping Rutecarpine styles, interpersonal orientation and related vulnerability, anxiety, and lowered self-esteem. The differences between men and women reflect differences in endocrine stress reactions, and might influence processes leading to depression.5,96 Lower prevalence rates in males may be due to their better social position, but also to under- or misdiagnosing because of typical male illness behavior, including externalizing coping styles (aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse), which often mask depressive symptoms in men.

001) The score at month 6 and 12 in the PCBT group was significa

001). The score at month 6 and 12 in the PCBT group was significantly lower than in the check details pharmacotherapy group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), respectively. The response rate in the PCCT group was 100% at months 1, 3, 6, and 12, significantly greater than the pharmacotherapy group or PCBT group (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001) (Table 2). No significant differences in response rates between the pharmacotherapy group and PCBT group were found at any time-point, although there was a trend difference between the two groups at month 12 (Table

2). Remission rates were higher in the PCCT group (≥63.9%) than in pharmacotherapy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical group or PCBT group at month 1, 3, 6, and 12, respectively (P < 0.0001; Table 2). There was no significantly different remission rate between the PCBT group and the

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pharmacotherapy group (Fisher’s exact test, P > 0.05) (Table 2). The social-occupational functioning ANCOVA analysis showed that GAF was significantly different overall (P < 0.001). The GAF score showed a significantly greater increase in the PCCT (P < 0.001) group than in the pharmacotherapy group and PCBT group over the treatment time. The repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the interaction of treatments and time significantly affected the GAF score (P < 0.0001). The ANOVA post hoc tests showed that there was no difference in the GAF scores before Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment among the three groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the baseline, the average GAF score was significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical increased at month 1 in the PCCT group (P < 0.001) and remained at a significantly higher level at months 3, 6, and 12. At months 1, 3, 6, and 12, the GAF score was higher in the PCCT group than in the pharmacotherapy group and PCBT group (P < 0.001) (Table 2). At month 3, the GAF score increased in the pharmacotherapy group

and in the PCBT group (P < 0.001) when compared with the baseline. Factors correlated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with the efficacy of PCCT Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using the Y-BOCS-SR score as a dependent variable, and gender, education (year), duration of OCD, severity of symptom, and insight as independent variables to investigate Endocrine Reviews the correlated factors with the efficacy of PCCT. The results show that only insight entered the formula at week 2 (R2 = 0.52, P = 0.025), week 4 (R2 = 0.59, P = 0.025), month 3 (R2 = 0.76, P = 0.001), month 6 (R2 = 0.70, P = 0.003), and month 12 (R2 = 0.64, P = 0.007), respectively. Relapse rates and ITT During follow-up, there were 15 (39.5%) participants in the pharmacotherapy group, 18 (52.9%) in the PCBT, and 36 (100%) in the PCCT that initially responded to the treatments, but 8 (53.3%) in the pharmacotherapy group, 6 (33.3%) in the PCBT, and 2 (5.6%) in the PCCT group relapsed (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001).

Thus, one may think that both agents would have contributed to an

Thus, one may think that both agents would have contributed to an increase in dopaminergic activity in the brain of our patient which biologically underlined the development of a depressive episode with psychotic features in our patient. This case report provides valuable

support of reviously published cases that demonstrate the risk of exacerbation of psychotic symptoms and depression with varenicline use in patients with severe mental illness. With proper assessment and management of varenicline-induced neuropsychiatric effects, healthcare professionals can provide an important Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical role in helping to prevent and manage worsening psychiatric symptoms.

Footnotes This research Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.
Objective: This study was a comparative investigation of the effects on clinical symptoms and cognitive function of switching Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical schizophrenia patients from oral risperidone to risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) compared with a control group that continued receiving oral risperidone. Methods: The subjects were 21 patients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Their clinical symptoms were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and their cognitive function was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Keio Version (KWCST) to assess executive function, and the St Marianna University School of Medicine’s Computerized Memory Test (STM-COMET) to assess memory and concentration.

Results: No significant differences in clinical symptom improvement efficacy were seen Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between the group that was switched to RLAI and the control Methisazone group. No significant differences were seen between the two Gemcitabine supplier groups in the mean change from baseline in any of the KWCST tests. The mean changes from baseline on the STM-COMET memory scanning test and memory filtering test were significantly greater in the group that switched to RLAI than in the control group. Furthermore, patients with RLAI needed less biperiden, even though they had similar risperidone-equivalent daily dosages as the group with oral risperidone. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that switching from oral risperidone to RLAI may affect motor processing function and attention improvement efficacy by allowing the dosage of anti-Parkinson’s medication to be reduced.