RO has two formats: 24-hour RO and classroom RO. Classroom RO is an intensive cognitive
retraining program conducted for about 30 minutes each day; 24-hour RO involves active orientation information cueing by all staff at every opportunity. RO, however, is beneficial only as long as the resident has the capacity to retain current information. Persons in the middle to late stage of dementia will not benefit from RO, and in some Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical instances can become frustrated and agitated when asked RO-type of questions. Validation therapy Validation therapy was developed by Naomi Feil in 1982. It. is an individual and group intervention that focuses on the emotional content of what, someone is saying versus the CDK inhibitor factual content. The therapist validates what, someone is saying by acknowledging the emotion (s) being expressed by the person (also referred to as “subjective reality”). This type of therapy has been observed to work especially Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical well with memory-impaired persons such as those with dementia..83 Reminiscence and life review Up until the 1960s, reminiscing by older adults was not. considered a healthy sign of aging. In 1961, however, Butler formulated the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical concept that, reviewing one’s life may be a positive
form of placing experiences in proper perspective and working through unresolved conflicts.84Empirical trials have been conducted using reminiscence and life review to reduce depression and anxiety and to increase feelings of self-esteem and life satisfaction in the elderly. Although results have been promising, findings have been inconsistent.85 A number of variables may contribute to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these differing impact rates such as the frequency and duration of the intervention, patient age, the setting (ie, a private residence or a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical long-term care facility), what measures of change are being used to assess treatment outcomes, whether the format is for individual or group therapy, and the use of other external stimuli such as music.86-91 Reminiscence therapy has become a popular form of treatment in individuals with dementia because it
depends more on personal experience than a factual recall of events.92,93 Also, reminiscence can help patients come to terms with their situation, especially old in the early stages of the disease when long-term memory of distant events is relatively preserved compared to short-term memory or the ability to recall recent events. Reminiscence or life review focuses on something the patient can still do and helps to maintain a sense of identity. The evidence for the effectiveness of reminiscence in individuals with dementia is generally positive. One study of 27 nursing home residents with dementia indicated that the self-reported level of depression in reminiscence group participants was positively- affected compared with participants in the supportive therapy and control groups.