, 2010). The data present here suggest that LM-PLA2-I, a PLA2 isolated from L. muta snake venom generates LPC that in turn enhance ganglion cells survival through PKC pathway, probably the PKCδ isoform; and also the JNK is involved. Surprisingly, data from literature have demonstrated the participation of JNK enzyme in apoptosis ( Dhanasekaran and Reddy, 2008 and Brnjic et al., 2010). But, this enzyme is also involved in the trophic effect elicited
by ouabain in retinal ganglion cell survival selleckchem ( de Rezende Corrêa et al., 2010) and now, elicited by LM-PLA2-I. The local production of LPC in retina may be an important step to stimulate such cells to enhance their survival. Several works have been demonstrated the presence of PLA2 activity in retina (Jacob et al., 1998, Giusto et al., 2000, Masamune et al., 2001, Farooqui and Horrocks, 2006 and Wang and Kolko, 2010), and when retina cells are treated with PLA2 inhibitors GSK-3 phosphorylation the viability of them is diminished (Forlenza et al., 2007 and Suburo and Cei de Job, 1987). In neurodegenerative diseases, the activity of PLA2 plays a central role in the development on the pathophysiological
processes (Farooqui and Horrocks, 2006). Exogenous LPC or the one formed by LM-PLA2-I enzymatic activity may act as a trophic molecule modulating retinal survival, thus protecting cells from death and this phenomena is related to the concentration 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl of LPC formed; where low concentrations increase cells survival and high ones damaged them. We thank to FAPERJ, CNPq and
CAPES for financial support. And also, the authors would like to thank Alexandre José Fernandes, Bernardino Matheus dos Santos and Alecsandro de Jesus Rezende for technical assistance. “
“Please find attached the correct Fig. 1 as there was some mistake in the published paper. “
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“In spite of the wide range of pharmacological classes and drugs that have been used as analgesics for decades, there is a continuing search for new alternatives, both because low efficacy or safety of many of them (Melnikova, 2010 and Woodcock, 2009). Among the new alternatives that have been evaluated, products obtained from animals, plants and microorganisms are promising. Many of them exhibit a plethora of biological activities, including inhibition of nociceptive behaviour in experimental models of pain. Although the honeybee (Apis mellifera) sting induces local pain and oedema ( Vetter and Visscher, 1998), the A. mellifera venom (AMV) has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory diseases and to relieve pain ( Lee et al., 2005 and Son et al., 2007). Various components of AMV have been identified, but there is not a consensus about their concentration.