Contrast enhanced computed tomogram showed absence of left lung a

Contrast enhanced computed tomogram showed absence of left lung and herniation of right lung to the left and bronchiectatic changes in right lung(Fig. 3),absence of left main bronchus and left pulmonary artery(Fig. 2).Fibreoptic bronchoscopy showed only a dimple at the place of the opening of left main bronchus (Fig. 4). Ultrasonogram revealed pericardial effusion. He was diagnosed as left sided agenesis of lung with left pulmonary artery atresia, pulmonary

artery hypertension and bronchiectasis of right lung. Unilateral agenesis of the lung may be present to varying degrees of severity. The left lung is affected more frequently than the right, males predominate over females and the majority of cases exhibit other congenital abnormalities like patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary artery atresia, cardiac malformation, tracheo-esophageal fistula, cardiac malformation and horse-shoe kidney.However,several Panobinostat solubility dmso older reports prove that other anomalies are more associated with right sided agenesis and persons with right sided agenesis mostly die within first year of their life,due to associated cardiac malformations.2 Originally Schneider (1912) 3 classified agenesis into three groups which was later on modified by Boyden 4 as- Trichostatin A Type I(Agenesis): Complete absence of lung and bronchus and absence of blood vessels to the affected side. Type II(Aplasia):Rudimentary

bronchus with complete absence of lung tissue. Type III(Hypoplasia):Presence of variable amounts of lung parenchyma,bronchial tree and supporting vasculature. Our patient has been classified as Type I. In Schneider’s agenesis Amobarbital grade I and II, the affected side contains no lung tissue, and only the existing lung gets the branch from the main pulmonary artery, an observation which has been confirmed several times and has been seen in our case also. Clinical presentation of agenesis lung is marked by its variety from recurrent childhood respiratory infection resulting from imperfect drainage of lung secretions or from the spillover of pooled secretions

from a blind bronchial stump into initially normal lung tissue, frequent haemoptysis due to bronchiectasis of remaining lung to major organ malformation leading the patient to succumb in early life. A similar case was reported in Turkey as, a 30-year-old man presenting with dyspnoea was diagnosed to have right lung agenesis and left pulmonary bronchiectasis.5 Autosomal recessive chromosomal aberration,associated with consanguineous marriage6,deficiency of vitamin A,intrauterine infections, environmental factors have been held responsible for the etiology of congenital lung malformations. During normal development, the heart shifts to the left in the 4th week of foetal life and simultaneously the trachea develops as a ventral diverticulum arising from the foregut.7 Pulmonary agenesis or aplasia occurs perhaps due to the failure of the bronchial analogue to divide equally between the two lung buds.

The unsupervised PCA was used to identify potential outliers (acc

The unsupervised PCA was used to identify potential outliers (according to Hotelling’s ellipse and Leverage plot) and natural clusters ( Tres, Ruiz-Samblas, van der Veer, & van Ruth, 2013). PCA revealed the presence of natural clusters for both geographical origin and cultivar type. Doxorubicin mw Eight samples (3 Jazz, 2 Golden Delicious, and 3 Braeburn) were removed from further analyses after classification as outliers. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was conducted using the APCI-MS fingerprint (matrix comprised of 202 samples and 120 variables) to

construct the classification models for the verification of the cultivar and geographical provenance of the clarified apple juices. Log transformation, mean centring and auto-scaling of the spectral dataset was applied prior to conducting the PLS-DA analysis. Pretreatment of spectral dataset allowed the removal of the offset from the data, reduced the heteroscedasticity (skewness) of the data and enable comparison of the spectral data based on an equal basis. The entire dataset was divided randomly into subsets that were used for the development of the classification models (143 samples,

70.8% of the total samples, namely internal validation set) and their validation (59 samples, 29.2%, namely external validation set). A leave-one-out (LOO) GSK1120212 full cross validation was also used to evaluate the performance of the models constructed using the training many dataset and the optimal number of principle components (PCs) required to achieve the best classification from the constructed models was also calculated. All statistical treatments of the APCI-MS fingerprint were conducted using Unscrambler version 9.7 (Camo A/S, Norway). Sixteen volatile flavour compounds were detected and identified

in the headspace of the fresh monocultivar apple juices (Table 1), the identified compounds were mainly aldehydes, alkyl-esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids. The compositional flavour profile of the apple juices was found to be in accordance with previously published data in apple juices and fresh cut apple samples (Aprea et al., 2011, Aprea et al., 2012, Dimick et al., 1983, Komthong et al., 2007 and López et al., 2007). Granny Smith apple juices were characterised as having the lowest alkyl-esters concentration (with the exception of ethyl hexanoate) and the highest concentration of cis-3-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-hexenal and intermediate concentrations of hexanal, and 2-methylbutanol. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-hexenal are both related with strong green-grassy flavour notes which together with hexanal are considered the main contributor of green flavour in apples and their derivatives (Komthong, Hayakawa, Katoh, Igura, & Shimoda, 2006). Aprea et al.

9899, p < 0 05) These results are similar to those in previous s

9899, p < 0.05). These results are similar to those in previous studies, which reported variations in the inhibitory effects of microbial pesticides against pathogen growth [9]. The degree of protection, in terms of the percentage reduction in the number of disease lesions, is displayed in Table 1. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was detected between the B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 and

ITA treatments. The TSB control also displayed a protective effect (p < 0.05) compared with the control, but lower than that of B. subtilis HK-CSM-1. Anthracnose infection processes can be divided into two stages, referred to initially as biotrophs and later switching to necrotrophs. The first biotrophic stage involves spore germination and the formation of an appressorium, then penetration into plant tissues by a thin penetration peg. In the second necrotrophic stage, the Fulvestrant invaded hypha is developed in the plant tissues, resulting in death and collapse to form a sunken area [10] and [11].

To verify the attenuation of disease symptoms, we also surveyed the differences in size of anthracnose lesions. Interestingly, as displayed in Table 1, treatment with B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 was not significantly different from the control in terms of lesion size (area). However, the disease severity was significantly reduced in plants treated with B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 compared with the controls. This suggests that B. subtilis was able to inhibit virulence at the penetration stage, but not at the tissue invasion stage. This implies that treatment during the penetration stage Galunisertib molecular weight is critical in protecting against anthracnose. Lastly, we investigated the area of the lesions as a percentage of the total leaf area, which is equivalent to disease severity. As shown in Fig. 3 and Table 1, there was no significant difference in the control of anthracnose between B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 and ITA (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the percentage

of leaf area covered by lesions indicated significant linear correlation (r = 0.95038, p < 0.05) with the number of lesions. This again suggests that the penetration stage is critical in the effective control of anthracnose in ginseng. These observations also confirm the veracity of visual assessments. We have reported an effective approach to achieve the ecologically friendly control of ginseng anthracnose, one of the most harmful diseases of this (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate crop. The protective effects of B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 were similar to those of the commercial fungicide ITA. However, this study was conducted on containerized plants and further studies are required to investigate whether these results hold true under field conditions. To develop an effective biological control standard, it is necessary to test the protective effects of B. subtilis in the field, including the determination of the optimum time for the treatment. In addition, formulations prolonging the survival of the bacterium on crop plants are necessary.

If the landfill is not well controlled, releases could be via dus

If the landfill is not well controlled, releases could be via dust from weathered composites. Recycling of composite materials could release nanomaterials to the atmosphere during processing, or to a new mixture with an alternative use. Incineration could release nanomaterials from a composite; whether they are released to the atmosphere, or become part of fly ash or bottom ash if the incineration conditions do not determine a conversion of the ENM into a non-ENM (e.g. the conversion of CNTs at 800 °C under oxygen to CO2) (Roes et al., 2012). If the composite was used in an application that involved washing with water, release into wastewater is possible

resulting in either a land or aquatic pathway (Gottschalk et al., 2009). Post-consumer uses, including unintended uses, click here could create novel pathways for release. For example, fabric intended as a protective layer in a composite could be recovered from poorly managed waste handling facilities and used for clothing, in homes or in ways that result in consumer exposure. To date, few studies have focused on the potential releases of CNTs contained within advanced

polymer composites. Studies have focused on several Talazoparib types of releases from two main scenarios: the first scenario involves release due to high energy processes during post manufacturing of the master batch, leading to potential occupational, consumer, or environmental exposures occurring from drilling, sanding, and cutting the CNT composite; the other scenario consists of potential releases of CNTs from the bound matrices due to low-energy processes, e.g. consumer use and environmental degradation from UV-light and weathering. For the first scenario, several high-energy machining methods have been used, including wet and dry machining using a band-saw and a rotary

cutting wheel and wet and dry solid core drilling (Bello et al., 2009 and Bello et al., 2010). Both studies used similar types of CNT–carbon and CNT–alumina hybrid composites and were both conducted within a controlled laboratory setting. For both studies, a suite of direct reading instruments along with time integrated samples ADAMTS5 was used to determine potential personal breathing zone and area exposures. Several of the metrics analyzed included particle size distribution, number concentration, optically based mass measurements, and active surface area. Time integrated samples were collected for examination of particle morphology and fibers, e.g. respirable fibers, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A study specifically looking at wet and dry machining operations found that dry cutting of composites generated statistically significant quantities of nanoscale and fine particles as compared to background and generated by wet sawing, regardless of the composite type (CNT–carbon, CNT–alumina, control without ENM) (Bello et al., 2009).

, 2004) and possibly also due to

old forests becoming den

, 2004) and possibly also due to

old forests becoming denser ( Gauslaa et al., 2007). It is today found in small and isolated populations, and is red-listed in several countries, among them Sweden ( Gärdenfors, 2010). The species is commonly used in lichen transplant experiments (e.g. Scheidegger, 1995, Gaio-Oliveira et al., 2004 and Gauslaa et al., 2006). It has also since almost two decades been used as an indicator species to identify forest habitats with high conservation value in Sweden, as field experience has shown that it reflects the presence of other uncommon and declining species ( Nitare, 2005). There are also indications RGFP966 that the species may reflect high conservation values at the landscape scale ( Kalwij et al., 2005). At the initiation of our transplantation experiment in 1994, L. pulmonaria was not red-listed in Sweden ( Databanken för hotade arter and Naturvårdsverket, 1990). The study area is located in the hemi-boreal zone (Ahti et al., 1968) in East-Central Sweden (60°02′N, 18°22′E). The proportion of forest Navitoclax clinical trial >80 years old in the region is 24%, with Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. being the dominant tree species, but the proportion of aspen is unusually high, 4% ( Swedish Forest Agency, 2012). Altogether 1120 pieces of L. pulmonaria, each about 6 cm2

large, were transplanted in spring and autumn of 1994 to 280 aspens at 35 sites ( Table 1). Each site consisted of a forest and a clearcut, with four receiver aspen in each, i.e. altogether eight trees per site. In 19 clearcuts the receiver trees were solitary (scattered) and in 16 sites they occurred in groups of broad-leaved

trees (grouped: >3 aspens >18 cm diameter at breast height and <15 m from each other). The 35 sites were situated within an area of 1900 km2, with an average distance between them of 24.7 km (range 0.4 - 65 km). In spring as well as in autumn of 1994, two oxyclozanide transplantations were made per tree, one on the north and one on the south side of the stems 140 to 180 cm above ground level, amounting to a total number of four transplants per tree. The thallus pieces were attached to the stem with the help of a plastic net (6 × 6 cm with 1 × 1 cm meshes) and metal staples to the bark. Each sample was sprayed with tap water immediately after transplantation. All transplantation sites were visited in summer 1996 and spring 2008 to visually evaluate survival and vitality of the transplants. Prior to evaluation, transplants were sprayed with water in order to enable relevant comparisons since dry and wet L. pulmonaria thalli differ in color. If any thallus part remained, the transplant was judged as having survived. If ⩾50% of a survived thallus was in a viable condition (i.e. giving a healthy impression with a green, intact surface without necrosis or signs of damage), the transplant was assessed as being vital.

g , seed of the fruit of only the poor-tasting, non-collected ind

g., seed of the fruit of only the poor-tasting, non-collected individuals remain in stands to FG-4592 concentration establish the next generation) or positive selection (e.g., seed are discarded from the fruit of superior, collected trees in locations suitable for germination and establishment) (Leakey et al., 2004). The human harvest of fruit could also lead to a reduction in number of animal seed dispersers, reducing genetic connectivity in populations and increasing the prospects for future inbreeding depression (Lowe et al., 2005). Where the NTFP is harvested non-destructively and is not the seed or fruit, impacts may depend more on harvesting impacts on forest regeneration

dynamics generally (Ticktin, 2004). Finally, sustainable NTFP management must also consider timber extraction activities in forests (Laird, 1998). First, timber and NTFPs are sometimes harvested from the same species, indicating competition or, occasionally, complementarity

in harvesting (Shanley and Luz, 2003). Of the top timber species in Cameroon, for example, Laird (1998) indicated that several had important non-timber values, although most of the widely marketed NTFPs in the region were not important timbers. The magnitude of any conflict between the possible multiple uses of a species may be location-specific, complicating supportive policy development for livelihoods (Herrero-Jáuregui et al., 2013). Second, the management of forest for timber influences the availability of NTFPs produced by other species through controlling access to forest, enhancing Mirabegron or inhibiting Sunitinib cost regeneration, etc. (Rist et al., 2012). Third, aspects of both NTFP and timber harvesting are sometimes explicitly combined in multiple-use forest management plans, with more or less success, in which an important issue is not to neglect the contribution of NTFPs compared to timber extraction (Guariguata et al., 2010). Agroforestry practices involve the integration

of trees with annual crop cultivation, livestock production and other farm activities (Garrity, 2004), and have been widely adopted globally, as illustrated by a geospatial analysis conducted by Zomer et al. (2009) that indicated approximately 560 million people living in farm landscapes with more than 10% tree cover. When grown on farms, tree products are often described as AFTPs to differentiate them from NTFPs and timber harvested from forests (Simons and Leakey, 2004). Gradations between natural forests, anthropogenic forests and agroforests, however, mean that there is often no clear boundary between AFTPs and NTFPs, a complicating factor in the estimation of relative contributions to livelihoods, and in devising management options tailored for different settings (Byron and Arnold, 1997).

PCR cycling parameters around the standard set of conditions were

PCR cycling parameters around the standard set of conditions were tested on one instrument, except cycle number which was done on a second instrument. Six 1000 M control swabs with 100,000 cells were used to test each of the thermal cycling parameters. The following thermal cycling parameters were examined, with the standard conditions indicated in bold: activation temperature: 94 °C, 96 °C, and 98 °C; denaturation temperature:

94 °C, 96 °C, and 98 °C; annealing temperature: 58 °C, 60 °C, and selleckchem 62 °C; final extension time: 4 min, 8 min and 12 min; cycle number: 27, 28, and 29 cycles. Specificity was tested using 8 ng of DNA from five non-primate sources (bovine, chicken, horse, porcine and rabbit) and pooled microorganisms (ca. 105 copies each from Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivariu, Latobacillus SB203580 molecular weight casei, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans). Three replicates for each species listed and five replicates of the microbial pool were tested. Sensitivity was tested in three ways by

running the following sets of swabs on three systems: (1) Two-fold serial dilutions of 1000 M cells from 200,000 down to 3125 cells (1.2 μg–18.75 ng based on 6 pg/diploid cell) were prepared and added to swabs (6 replicates/dilution, n = 42 total swabs); (2) Mock swab collection to simulate potential DNA amounts from two donors, across the range from 1 touch to inside of cheek, 1 swipe, 2 swipes, 5 swipes, 10 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase swipes to 20 swipes of the inside of the cheek (3 replicates/collection/donor, n = 36 total swabs). (3) Two-fold dilutions of blood (20–2.5 μL and 1 μL) from three donors applied to cotton swabs (n = 3/dilution/donor, n = 15 total swabs). Percentage of alleles detected at each dilution and average peak height was determined.

A mixture study was performed to verify the analysis software will appropriately flag a sample that may be a mixture before expert review. Mixture of two cell lines, 1000 M and 1000 F, were examined at the following ratios (1:0, 1:1, 1:2.5, 1:4, and 1:9) while maintaining the total amount of cells at 50,000 (low range of cells on buccal swabs). These two cell lines were selected to minimize both the number of overlapping alleles and alleles occurring in stutter positions. Each mixture series was tested in six separate runs on the RapidHIT. A subset of donor buccal swabs (150 individuals) was processed on four RapidHIT Systems. Genotype concordance was checked against reference profiles generated from the GlobalFiler Express runs on the ABI 9700/3130xL instruments and analyzed with GeneMapper ID-X v1.4. In addition, DNA (∼1–2 ng/20 μL) from the NIST SRM 2391c DNA Profiling standard (components A–D) were added directly to the STR reagent vials prior to insertion onto the cartridge and run on the RapidHIT System. Concordance was checked against the NIST certified genotypes.

, 2008) Fig 5a summarizes the mean values per ferret group per

, 2008). Fig. 5a summarizes the mean values per ferret group per day, and Fig. 5b show values for individual animals. The data show that 244 DI virus RNA was marginally above detectable levels at 1 day after infection, and that by day 2 there were high levels of 244 DI virus RNA in infected ferrets treated with 244

DI virus. 244 DI virus RNA was not detected in the other groups indicating Palbociclib that 244 DI virus RNA is specific for ferrets inoculated with 244 DI virus. The 244 DI virus RNA levels increased by nearly 1000-fold between days 1 and 2, and by over 25,000-fold between days 1 and 3, reaching a peak of 1010.8 copies per ferret. 244 DI virus RNA then steadily declined reaching a very low level on day 10 and was undetectable on day 14 after infection. These data demonstrate the ability of the Y-27632 mouse 244 DI virus RNA to be amplified by the very agent that it is acting against – in this case A/Cal influenza virus. The >25,000-fold expansion factor effectively augments the applied dose of 244 DI virus RNA from 2 μg to >50 mg per animal. In addition to the signs and symptoms described above ferrets were monitored

in the morning and the afternoon for loss of appetite, appearance of diarrhoea, and reduction in activity. None of these was seen in any group. There was a strong HI antibody response to A/Cal/04/09 (H1N1) in sera taken at 14 days after infection whether groups had been treated with 244 DI virus, oseltamivir or were untreated (Table 2). The titre of 244 DI-treated infected group was significantly higher than the infected group treated

with oseltamivir (p = 0.008). Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) Thus amelioration of infection by 244 DI virus appeared to improve rather than diminish the antibody response to the A/Cal haemagglutinin. In this study we compared the effects of treatment with DI virus and oseltamivir on the course of disease and virus load resulting from infection with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (A/California/04/09) in the ferret. Data summarized in Table 3 show that DI virus reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms (sneezing and nasal discharge), the appearance of cells in nasal washes, and virus load. All this was coincident with a dramatic increase in DI RNA, presumably due to its amplification by A/Cal. It is reasonable to suppose that the beneficial effects are the result of the action of this augmented population of DI RNA. Augmentation of 244 DI RNA is consistent with the mouse model in which amplification of 244 DI virus RNA by various influenza A viruses has been documented many times (Dimmock et al., 2008 and Scott et al., 2011a). It is likely that 244 RNA in nasal washes is packaged into newly synthesised DI virus particles as influenza RNA either free or in a ribonucleoprotein structure is susceptible to degradation by ribonuclease (Duesberg, 1969).

1) (Theiling et al , 2000) However, within this reach, the area

1) (Theiling et al., 2000). However, within this reach, the area upstream of Lock and Dam 6 has experienced exceptional island growth, beginning in the 1960s (Fremling et al., 1973). Improving the hydrologic and sediment regime, floodplain function, ecological functions, and current river management practices are often described as the desired outcomes of restoration (Ward

et al., 2001, Buijse et al., 2002 and Palmer et al., 2005). However, the scale and costs of restoration can combine to make large river restorations contentious and controversial (Ward et al., 2001 and Palmer et al., 2005). On the UMRS, restoration and habitat enhancement efforts have been undertaken by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These projects have received over $241 million in federal funding since 1985 (USACE, Selleckchem Volasertib 2010). Since 1986, 54 projects have been completed click here in UMRS Pools 1–10, including dredging backwaters to enhance aquatic habitat, bank and island stabilization to limit future erosion, and periodic drawdowns to permit seed germination. More than 30 islands have been created in Pools 5, 5A, 7, 8, and 9 (

The goal of the project was to identify factors that make sites geomorphically favorable for island restoration in the UMRS or other large, engineered rivers with shallow pooled areas. To this end, we quantified and evaluated effects of river management on island growth, persistence, and loss in Pool 6 of the UMRS, and contrasted the setting of Pool 6 to other parts of the UMRS. Pool 6 of the UMR spans 22.5 km (river miles 714–728) between Lock and Dam 5a in Winona, Minnesota and Lock and

Dam 6 at Trempealeau, Wisconsin (Fig. 1). Pool 6 of the UMRS drains approximately 153,327 km2 at US Geological Survey (USGS) gage 05378500 at Winona. The islands and surrounding aquatic environments within Pool 6 are part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Upper Mississippi River Fish and Wildlife Refuge and Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge. Pool 6 is located in the Driftless Area, a region that remained unglaciated for much of the Pleistocene. The UMR functioned as a principal southern drainage for glacial meltwater and sediments. Bluffs, 180 m high, flank the river and its floodplain, constricting the width during of the UMRS’s floodplain in places and reducing the channel’s ability to migrate (Knox, 2008). Following European settlement in the mid 1800s, conversion of forests to intensive agriculture resulted in dramatic hillslope erosion, sediment fluxes, and floodplain sedimentation, which declined only with the onset of erosion control practices in the 1930s (Knox, 1977, Knox, 1987, Knox, 2001, Trimble, 1983 and Trimble, 1999). Most of the sediments transported to Pool 6 are quartz sands from the Chippewa River, which enters the Mississippi River ∼39 km upstream (Rose, 1992).

In Northern Eurasia and Beringia (including Siberia and Alaska),

In Northern Eurasia and Beringia (including Siberia and Alaska), 9 genera (35%) of megafauna (Table 3) went extinct in two pulses (Koch and Barnosky, 2006:219). Warm weather adapted megafauna such as straight-tusked elephants, hippos, hemionid horses, and short-faced bears went extinct between 48,000 and 23,000 cal BP and cold-adapted

megafauna such as mammoths went extinct between 14,000 and 11,500 cal BP. In central North America, approximately 34 genera (72%) of large mammals went extinct between about 13,000 and 10,500 years ago, including mammoths, mastodons, giant ground sloths, horses, tapirs, camels, bears, saber-tooth cats, and a variety of Epigenetics Compound Library high throughput other animals (Alroy, 1999, Grayson, 1991 and Grayson, 2007). BIBW2992 nmr Large mammals were most heavily affected, but some small mammals, including a skunk and rabbit, also went extinct. South America lost an even larger number and percentage, with 50 megafauna genera (83%) becoming extinct at about the same time. In Australia, some 21 genera (83%) of large marsupials, birds, and reptiles went extinct (Flannery and

Roberts, 1999) approximately 46,000 years ago, including giant kangaroos, wombats, and snakes (Roberts et al., 2001). In the Americas, Eurasia, and Australia, the larger bodied animals with slow reproductive rates were especially prone to extinction (Burney and Flannery, 2005 and Lyons et al., 2004), a pattern that seems to be unique to late Pleistocene extinctions.

According to statistical analyses by Alroy (1999), this late Quaternary extinction episode is more selective for large-bodied animals than any other extinction interval in the last 65 million years. Current evidence suggests that the initial human Gefitinib nmr colonization of Australia and the Americas at about 50,000 and 15,000 years ago, respectively, and the appearance of AMH in Northern Eurasia beginning about 50,000 years ago coincided with the extinction of these animals, although the influence of humans is still debated (e.g., Brook and Bowman, 2002, Brook and Bowman, 2004, Grayson, 2001, Roberts et al., 2001, Surovell et al., 2005 and Wroe et al., 2004). Many scholars have implicated climate change as the prime mover in megafaunal extinctions (see Wroe et al., 2006). There are a number of variations on the climate change theme, but the most popular implicates rapid changes in climate and vegetation communities as the prime driver of extinctions (Grayson, 2007, Guthrie, 1984 and Owen-Smith, 1988). Extinctions, then, are seen as the result of habitat loss (King and Saunders, 1984), reduced carrying capacity for herbivores (Guthrie, 1984), increased patchiness and resource fragmentation (MacArthur and Pianka, 1966), or disruptions in the co-evolutionary balance between plants, herbivores, and carnivores (Graham and Lundelius, 1984).