Indeed the responders were older as a group. Furthermore, responders had greater BMI indicating a difference in body composition. It is, therefore, possible that the responders had more muscle mass potentially enhancing their use of Na-CIT, and subsequently their anaerobic AZD4547 solubility dmso metabolism. The effect on both swimming performance and plasma alkalization was dependent on the supplementation protocol. The acute supplementation benefited the performance of the responders; however, the chronic supplementation did not lead to significant improvement or increase lactate concentration. The CHR protocol was enacted to incrementally increase plasma BE over a longer time period to allow
similar blood alkalization with a HDAC inhibitor smaller dose at the basal time point. The rationale behind the chronic dosing supplementation
was to minimize the potential for performance inhibiting GI upset. Perhaps the CHR pre-trial dose was insufficient to elicit performance enhancement, even with the chronic dosing protocol over the previous three days. Another factor could be the time between the last chronic dose and the pre-trial dose of Na-CIT. Optimally, the pre-trial dose would have been the morning after the last chronic dose; however, the swims were performed after school, in the late afternoon. Further experimentation with the timing of the last chronic dose and the pre-trial dose may be necessary to find an optimal protocol, should one Baf-A1 supplier exist Sample size was a limitation of this study as is for most studies focused on athletic enhancement of specific age groups. Considering the post-study analysis of responders and non-responders, the absence of maturation data of the participants was a limitation based on the conclusions of this study. Differences in training volume may also be a limitation to studies attempting multi-day trials over a period of time. In addition, although allowing swimmers to warm-up and race
using their preferred routine and stroke was chosen to improve motivation and real-life application it is possible that the discrepancies in the warm-up routines between swimmers and the different strokes swam could have added some noise into the data that cannot be controlled. Therefore, the study cannot answer whether the degree of the observed effect (or lack thereof) was mediated, at least in part, due to the different swimming strokes and warm-up routines. Conclusions This double-blinded, placebo controlled, cross-over trial of Na-CIT supplementation did not show a significant ergogenic effect in all adolescent swimmers. Specifically, acute supplementation of Na-CIT provided sufficient pre-exercise alkalosis (as shown by the higher BE and bicarbonate) for performance improvement in 200 m time trials in only half of the young swimmers, who were older and had higher body mass. Post-trial blood lactate concentrations were also higher for this group.