66 In summary, the immunomodulatory potency of SP may be a relevant component in the pathophysiology of major depression. Neurokinin receptor antagonists
The first peptidergic NK1 receptor antagonists were synthesized in the early 1980s as useful tools for the investigation of the endogenous NK1 ligands.67 Ten years later, Snider and colleagues established the first nonpeptide NK1 receptor antagonist.68 It was the first step in the race for a pharmacological compound to antagonize the SP signal. It was only 2 years later that the binding epitopes of SP and the new antagonist were detected69: the tachykinin binds to the extracellular loops of the receptor, while the nonpeptide Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antagonists bind more deeply in the transmembrane segments of the receptor molecule. In the meantime, a great variety of nonpeptide antagonists for the NK1, NK2, and NK3 done receptors have become available. Basic pharmacological studies on Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neurokinin receptor antagonists The important
modulating and enhancing role of SP in nociception led to the idea of introducing NK1 receptor antagonists as antinociceptive drugs. A lot of effort was made toward the development of NK1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of pain. Although NK1 receptor antagonists appeared to act synergistically to inhibit NMDA receptors on second-order Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sensory neurons, they exhibited only weak potency in acute pain.70 However, antinociceptive inhibitor Erlotinib efficacy could be observed in nociceptive models of chronic pain. This may be relevant to the treatment of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), a syndrome, characterized by chronic widespread pain and depression-like symptoms. Serum Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of SP are increased in FM, suggesting its probable role in the pathophysiology of FM.71 We were able to demonstrate a relationship between
SP levels and intensity of pain perception in FM patients.72 Thus, the therapeutic use of NK1 receptor Carfilzomib antagonists in FM may be a successful treatment strategy in FM, although they have failed to show antinociceptive efficacy in other chronic pain syndromes like peripheral neuropathy, osteoarthritis, or migraine.73 Since central administration of SP was shown to induce depression-like and anxious behavior (see above), the NK1 receptor antagonists were tested in several animal models of depression and anxiety. Vocalization evoked in guinea-pig pups or neonatal mice by transient maternal separation could be attenuated by systemic administration of several NK1 receptor antagonists, such as CP99994, L760735, or L733060.2,74 This effect was comparable to that of clinically used antidepressants (phenelzine, imipramine, fluoxetine) and anxiolytics (diazepam, buspirone).