Unexpected cell-specific and stress-specific NF-kappa B activatio

Unexpected cell-specific and stress-specific NF-kappa B activation found in the inner ear in this in vivo study suggest that this approach may have

wide applications in demonstrating similar specializations of stress responses in other tissues, including the brain. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the stimulus characteristics necessary for the expression of c-fos protein in optokinetic system neurons using immunocytochemistry. Using whole-field visual motion as a stimulus, we found substantial c-fos expression in the optic tectum (TeO), the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM); in all cases immunostaining was seen only on the side contralateral to the eye FRAX597 viewing whole-field unidirectional motion; the side of the brain contralateral to the eye wearing a diffuser showed no staining. In the nBOR and the LM, different regions showed a remarkable specificity of c-fos expression depending on the direction of visual motion stimulation. Neurons were stained primarily in regions known from previous electrophysiological recordings to be maximally responsive AZD6738 molecular weight to that direction of motion; little staining was seen after

motion orthogonal to the preferred motion direction. Novel, continuous visual motion stimuli, lasting more than 30 min, was required for maximal c-fos expression, suggesting that brief periods of unidirectional optic flow, as would be experienced during normal life, do not stimulate the expression of c-fos. The largest number of neurons was labeled when birds raised from hatching with one eye covered by a diffuser were exposed to full-field visual motion immediately after the diffuser was switched from one eye to the other,

so that only the previously naive eye was visually stimulated. We conclude that the expression of c-fos in the optokinetic nuclei is linked to near peak firing rates on the one hand, and the novelty and duration of the visual signals, on the other, supporting the assumption that this expression is mainly Go6983 clinical trial related to stimulus contexts leading to neuronal plastic changes. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent evidence suggests that extracellular ATP modulates retinal processing and could play a role in modulating glial cells during retinal diseases. Here, we evaluated the localization of P2Y(1) receptors in the rat retina using indirect immunofluorescence immunocytochemistry. We observed labeling within defined populations of inner retinal neurons and Muller cell processes and end feet. Double labeling of P2Y(1) receptor with choline acetyltransferase revealed extensive colocalization indicating the expression of this receptor by cholinergic amacrine cells. Ganglion cell labeling for P2Y(1) receptors was also observed.

03) With a mean follow-up of 45 7 months, only 1 patient develop

03). With a mean follow-up of 45.7 months, only 1 patient developed an asymptomatic parasacral hernia.

CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of posterior sacrectomy defects with HADM and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps may be valid. This approach may have

rates of wound dehiscence comparable to other techniques and low rates of parasacral herniation.”
“Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), a type I IFN, is a well-known antitumoral agent. The investigation of Selleckchem Verubecestat its clinical properties in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been prompted by its pleiotropic antiproliferative and immune effects. So far, integration of IFN-alpha in the therapeutic arsenal against AML has been modest in view of the divergent results of clinical trials. Recent insights into the key pharmacokinetic determinants of the clinical efficacy of IFN along NU7441 chemical structure with advances in its pharmaceutical formulation, have sparked renewed interest in its use. This paper reviews the possible applicability of IFN-alpha

in the treatment of AML and provides a rational basis to re-explore its efficacy in clinical trials. Leukemia (2011) 25, 739-748; doi: 10.1038/leu.2010.324; published online 28 January 2011″
“BACKGROUND: Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) stimulation is a novel therapy for Parkinson disease. However, controversies remain regarding the clinical application of this new therapy, including patient selection, electrode positioning, and how best to assess outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical application of PPN stimulation in Parkinson disease.

METHODS: Five consecutive www.selleck.cn/products/Bortezomib.html patients with Parkinson disease complicated by severe gait freezing, postural instability, and frequent falls (all persisting even while

the patient was on medication) received bilateral stimulation of the mid-lower PPN without costimulation of other brain targets. Outcomes were assessed prospectively over 2 years with gait-specific questionnaires and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (part III).

RESULTS: The primary outcome, the Gait and Falls Questionnaire score, improved significantly with stimulation. Benefits were maintained over 2 years. Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (part III) items assessing gait and posture were relatively insensitive to these treatment effects. Beneficial effects often appeared to outlast stimulation for hours or longer. Thus, single-session on-vs off-stimulation assessments may be susceptible to “”delayed washout effects.”" Stimulation of the PPN did not change akinesia scores or dopaminergic medication requirements.

CONCLUSION: Bilateral stimulation of the mid-lower PPN (more caudal than previous reports) without costimulation of other brain targets may be beneficial for the subgroup of patients with Parkinson disease who experience severe gait freezing and postural instability with frequent falls, which persist even while on medication.

tularensis subsp tularensis, strain SCHU S4 and attenuated F tu

tularensis subsp. tularensis, strain SCHU S4 and attenuated F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, live vaccine strain using a comparative proteomic analysis. The majority of proteins identified in this study have been implicated in virulence mechanisms of other pathogens, and several have been categorized as having moonlighting properties; those that have more than one unrelated function. This profiling study of secreted proteins resulted in the unique detection of acid phosphatase (precursor) A (AcpA), beta-lactamase, and hypothetical protein FTT0484 in the highly virulent strain SCHU S4 secretome. The release of AcpA may be of importance for F. tularensis subsp.

tularensis virulence due Torin 1 nmr to the recently described AcpA role in the F. tularensis escape from phagosomes.”
“Objective: The Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft

trial was designed to evaluate the saphenous vein compared with the right internal thoracic artery as a Y-composite graft anastomosed to the Dasatinib manufacturer side of the left internal thoracic artery. In this early analysis, we compared early angiographic patency rates and clinical outcomes.

Methods: From September 2008 to October 2011, 224 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were randomized prospectively to undergo off-pump revascularization using the saphenous vein group (n = 112) or the right internal thoracic artery group (n = 112) as Y-composite grafts. Early postoperative (1.4 +/- 1.1 days) angiographic patency and clinical outcomes were compared.

Results: There was 1 operative death in the right internal thoracic artery group. No statistically significant differences in postoperative morbidities, including atrial fibrillation and acute renal failure, were observed between the groups. The number of distal anastomoses using the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 2.3 +/- 0.8 and 1.9 +/- 0.7 in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic

artery groups, respectively (P < .001). A third conduit was used in 44 patients (saphenous vein group vs right internal thoracic artery group, 4/109 vs 40/110; P < .001) to extend the side-arm Y-composite graft for complete revascularization. Early angiography demonstrated an overall patency PD98059 mouse rate of 99.4%(771 of 776 distal anastomoses). Patency rates of the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 98.8% (245 of 248) and 99.5%(207 of 208) in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P = .629).

Conclusions: A third conduit was needed to extend the right internal thoracic artery composite graft and reach the target vessels in 36.4% (40/110) of the patients. The saphenous vein composite graft was comparable with the right internal thoracic artery composite graft in terms of early angiographic patency and clinical outcomes.

However, there is still uncertainty regarding which proteases are

However, there is still uncertainty regarding which proteases are critical for HA cleavage in vivo. Therefore, further investigation of HA cleavage activation is needed

in order to gain insight into the critical proteases involved. Matriptase is a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family that is highly expressed in a membrane-bound form throughout the respiratory tract. One feature of matriptase is that, once activated, the catalytic domain is secreted into the extracellular Selleck Linsitinib space and so serves as a functional extracellular protease. In this study, we have determined that the secreted, catalytic domain of matriptase has the ability to cleave and activate HA from the influenza virus H1 subtype but not the H2 and H3 subtypes. Furthermore, matriptase selectively cleaved the HA of particular strains within the H1 subtype, revealing both subtype and H1 strain specificity. Matriptase was also found to activate thrombolytic zymogens that have been shown to cleave and activate the influenza virus HA. Our data demonstrate that matriptase has the ability to cleave HA directly or indirectly by activating JIB04 cell line HA-cleaving zymogens.”
“We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the brain regions activated during motor imagery of an action with an object both with and without passively

holding the object. Participants performed the following tasks: (1) ‘Imagery with Ball’ condition: subjects imagined squeezing a foam ball (7 cm diameter) while holding the ball,

(2) ‘Imagery’ condition: subjects imagined squeezing a ball without holding the ball, and (3) ‘Ball’ condition: subjects held the ball without motor imagery. Regions activated by the ‘Imagery with Ball’ condition were located in HDAC inhibitor the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplemental motor areas (SMA), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), superior parietal lobule (SPL), insula, cerebellum and basal ganglia. A direct comparison revealed that the right DLPFC and the right IPL showed a higher level of activation during the ‘Imagery with Ball’ than during the ‘Imagery’ + ‘Ball’ conditions. Our studies suggested that the right front-parietal networks were involved in the motor imagery of an action with an object. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in regulation of appetitive behaviors as well as emotional reactivity and reward, behavioral domains relevant to alcohol addiction.

We evaluated the effects of the non-peptide MCH1 receptor antagonist, GW803430 [6-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-[3-methoxy-4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-3H-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one; 3-30 mg/kg, i.p.] on alcohol-related behaviors in Wistar rats.

To examine the role of the cerebellum in APAs, we investigated a

To examine the role of the cerebellum in APAs, we investigated a conditional trans. genie mouse of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3Tg) that has defective cerebellar Purkinje cells. Kinematic analyses and monitoring of electromyographic activities during quadrupedal standing showed that SCA3Tg mice exhibited greater hindlimb instability than wild-type (WT) mice. This instability increased during a reaching task that required postural adjustments associated with

voluntary neck movements. Normally, the activities of the hindlimb muscles are synchronized SHP099 price with those in the neck that are the agonists for movement of the head in this reaching task; however, in SCA3Tg mice, activities in the hindlimbs were markedly delayed compared to the neck. These observations cannot simply be explained Lazertinib as a secondary outcome of the muscle atrophy that occurs in SCA3Tg mice. In WT mice with muscle atrophy induced by immobilization of the hindlimbs, we did not find impairment of APAs. These findings suggest that the deficits in APAs during the reaching task in SCA3Tg mice were not due to muscle atrophy in the hindlimbs, but were

mainly caused by cerebellar degeneration. Therefore, we conclude that the cerebellum is critically involved in APAs. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a dynamic cellular niche with unique neurogenic properties that are, as of yet, not fully understood. Astrocytes residing in the SVZ have been shown to spawn migratory neuroblasts via transitory amplifying progenitor cells. These migratory neuroblasts play a role in maintaining the olfactory circuitry in healthy brains and potentially have restorative properties after brain injury. Therefore, it is imperative to understand 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl the basic nature of these neurogenic astrocytes in order to gain a more cohesive picture of SVZ adult neurogenesis. However, one of the obstacles in this line of research is to specifically genetically modify SVZ astrocytes. Viral vector systems, based on adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses, are

flexible gene transfer systems that allow long-term transgene expression in a host cell. Electroporation allows for the transient expression of larger transgenes; whereas the cre/loxP system provides a lifetime of inherently stable genetic modulation. The benefits and drawbacks of these transduction methods and the application of various astrocyte-specific promoters are discussed with regard to their efficiency and accuracy when transducing adult SVZ astrocytes in the mouse brain. In vivo studies that manipulate gene expression in SVZ astrocytes will be essential to fully dissect and understand the complex molecular and cellular properties of the SVZ in the upcoming years. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Laboratory Investigation (2011) 91, 85-96; doi:10 1038/labinvest

Laboratory Investigation (2011) 91, 85-96; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.142; published online 2 August 2010″
“An impaired spinal GABAergic inhibitory function is known to be pivotal in neuropathic pain (NPP). At present, data concerning time-dependent alterations within the GABAergic system itself and post-synaptic GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory transmission are highly controversial, selleck likely related to the experimental NPP model used. Furthermore, it is unknown whether

the severity of NPP is determined by the degree of these GABAergic disturbances. In the present study we therefore examined in one experimental animal model whether anatomical changes within the spinal GABAergic system and its GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory function are gradually aggravated during the development of partial sciatic nerve injury (PSNL)-induced see more NPP and are related to the severity of PSNL-induced hypersensitivity. Three and 16 days after a unilateral PSNL (early and late NPP, respectively), GABA-immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) and the number of GABA-IR neuronal profiles were determined in Rexed laminae 1-3 of lumbar spinal cord cryosections. Additionally, the efficiency of dorsal horn GABA(A) receptor-induced inhibition was examined by cation chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) immunoblotting. NPP-induced hypersensitivity was only observed at the ipsilateral

side, both at early and late time points. During early NPP, a decrease in ipsilateral dorsal horn GABA-IR was observed without alterations in the number of GABA-IR neuronal profiles or KCC2 protein levels. In contrast, bilateral increases in spinal GABA-IR accompanied by an unchanged number of GABA-IR interneurons were observed during late NPP. This was furthermore attended with decreased ipsilateral KCC2 levels. Moreover, the degree of hypersensitivity was not related to disturbances within the spinal GABAergic system at all time points examined. In conclusion, our anatomical data suggest

that a dysfunctional GABA production is likely to be involved in early NPP whereas late NPP is characterized by a combined dysfunctional GABA release and decreased KCC2 levels, the latter suggesting an impaired GABA(A) receptor-mediated Farnesyltransferase inhibition. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Tight junction has a crucial role in regulating paracellular transports (as a barrier) and in separating apical from basolateral compartments to maintain cell polarity (as a fence). Tight junction can be disrupted by various stimuli, including oxidative stress, pathogens and proinflammatory cytokines. However, association of defective tight junction with kidney stone pathogenesis remains unknown. We therefore examined whether calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, which are the major crystalline composition in kidney stones, have any effects on expression and function of tight junction of polarized renal tubular epithelial cells.

Subsequently caspase-3 activation and apoptosis were detected in

Subsequently caspase-3 activation and apoptosis were detected in eicosapentaenoic acid exposed cells, leading to decreased cell numbers.

Conclusions: These PF-573228 solubility dmso findings confirm that eicosapentaenoic acid is a potent cytotoxic agent in bladder cancer cells and provide important insight into

the mechanisms by which eicosapentaenoic acid causes these changes. The changes in membrane composition that can occur with eicosapentaenoic acid likely contribute to the enhanced drug cytotoxicity reported previously in meglumine-eicosapentaenoic acid/epirubicin/mitomycin studies. Dietary manipulation of the cardiolipin fatty acid composition may provide an additional method for stimulating cell death in bladder cancer. In vivo studies using intravesical and dietary manipulation of fatty acid metabolism in bladder cancer merit further attention.”
“We assessed whether a clinical dose of the anti-inflammatory drug methylprednisolone (MP) given to adult mice acutely after spinal cord injury (SCI) influences spinal cord or hippocampal progenitor cells. Mice underwent a thoracic dorsal hemisection of the

spinal cord and received 30 mg/kg MP immediately and 24 h post-lesion. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after lesion either acutely (1-6 days) or late (22-27 Quizartinib price days) to label proliferating cells. Reaction of microglia/macrophages was quantified 7 days post-lesion and proliferation as well as differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) was analyzed after two survival times (7 days and 28 days). We also tested the influence of MP on microglia and adult NPCs in vitro.

MP treatment reduced the number of cells proliferating acutely after SCI in the spinal cord and hippocampus. Besides reducing activation and proliferation of microglia/macrophages in the spinal cord, MP also decreased the number of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Analysis of acutely BrdU-labeled cells at 28 days post-lesion suggests that proliferation and number of OPCs were changed chronically. Late proliferating cells were no longer influenced by the glucocorticoid regimen. In vitro experiments showed an inhibitory effect of MP on adult spinal cord and hippocampal progenitor Milciclib cell proliferation. Both cell types express the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors allowing a direct effect of MP. Our results show that MP reduces OPC proliferation after SCI either by affecting progenitor cells directly or via its anti-inflammatory effects. These findings open the question to which extent MP treatment limits the repair capacity of endogenous progenitor cells after CNS injury. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Tumor associated macrophages can regulate the growth of various cancers positively or negatively.

The N-methyl-D-asparate receptor (NMDAR) is a major molecular tar

The N-methyl-D-asparate receptor (NMDAR) is a major molecular target of ethanol, however, current evidence suggests that ethanol regulation of NMDAR function is widely variable and likely depends

on a number of factors. Thus, it is critical to investigate ethanol regulation of NMDAR function at synapses relevant to ethanol-regulated behaviors, such as in the vBNST. Here we show, using multiple techniques, that ethanol inhibits NMDAR function in vBNST neurons in a postsynaptic fashion. Further, we demonstrate the functional presence of both NR2A and NR2B-containing NMDARs in the vBNST. While genetic removal of NR2A find more did not alter the magnitude of ethanol inhibition, pharmacological blockade of NR2B rendered synaptically activated NMDARs insensitive to ethanol inhibition. GW3965 in vivo Finally, we demonstrate that ethanol inhibits NMDARs in cells in the vBNST that project to the VTA, providing a direct means by which ethanol in the vBNST can modulate the dopaminergic system.”
“Group A rotavirus classification is currently based on the molecular properties of the two outer layer proteins, VP7 and VP4, and the middle layer protein, VP6. As reassortment of all the 11 rotavirus gene segments plays

a key role in generating rotavirus diversity in nature, a classification system that is based on all the rotavirus gene segments is desirable for determining which genes influence rotavirus host range restriction, replication, and virulence, as well as for studying rotavirus epidemiology and evolution. Toward establishing such a classification system, gene sequences encoding VP1 to VP3, VP6, and NSP1 to NSP5 were determined for human and animal rotavirus strains belonging to different G and P genotypes in addition to those available in databases, and they were used to define phylogenetic relationships among all rotavirus genes. Based A-1210477 in vitro on these

phylogenetic analyses, appropriate identity cutoff values were determined for each gene. For the VP4 gene, a nucleotide identity cutoff value of 80% completely correlated with the 27 established P genotypes. For the VP7 gene, a nucleotide identity cutoff value of 80% largely coincided with the established G genotypes but identified four additional distinct genotypes comprised of murine or avian rotavirus strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 to VP3, VP6, and NSP1 to NSP5 genes showed the existence of 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 5, 7, 11, and 6 genotypes, respectively, based on nucleotide identity cutoff values of 83%, 84%, 81%, 85%, 79%, 85%, 85%, 85%, and 91%, respectively. In accordance with these data, a revised nomenclature of rotavirus strains is proposed.

It appears that quality, rather than quantity, might be the

It appears that quality, rather than quantity, might be the

Bucladesine research buy most important factor when comparing genomes.”
“Background: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is not generally recommended for patients with hostile neck anatomy. This study analyzed the clinical implications of various clinical features of proximal aortic neck anatomy.

Methods: Prospectively collected data from 258 EVAR patients using modular devices were analyzed. Patients were classified as having favorable neck anatomy (FNA) or hostile neck anatomy (HNA). HNA was defined as any or all of length of < 10 mm, angle of > 60 degrees, diameter of > 28 mm, >= 50% circumferential thrombus, >= 50% calcified neck, and reverse taper. Univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare early and late clinical outcomes.

Results: FNA was present in 37% and HNA was present in 63%. Clinical and demographic characteristics were comparable. Technical success was 99%. Mean follow-up was 22 months (range, 1-78 months). Perioperative complication rates were 3% for FNA vs 16% for HNA (P = .0027). Perioperative deaths were 0% for FNA and 3% for HNA (P = .2997). Proximal type I early

endoleaks (intraoperative) occurred in 9% of FNA vs 22% for HNA (P = .0202). Intraoperative proximal aortic cuffs were used to seal endoleaks in 9% of FNA vs 22% of HNA (P = .0093). At others late MK-1775 chemical structure follow-up, abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion was noted in 6% of FNA vs 7% of HNA (P = .8509).

Rates of freedom from late type I endoleaks at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 97%, 97%, 97%, and 90% for FNA vs 89%, 89%, 89%, and 89% for HNA (P = A 224); rates for late interventions were 95%, 90%, 90%, and 90% for FNA vs 95%, 93%, 91%, and 85% for HNA (P = .6902). Graft patency at 1, 2, and 3 years was 99%, 99%, and 99% for FNA vs 97%, 92%, and 90% for HNA (P = .0925). The survival rates were 93%, 84%, 76%, and 76% for FNA vs 88%, 82%, 74%, and 66% for HNA (P = .2631). Reverse taper was a significant predictor for early type I endoleak (odds ratio [OR], 5.25, P < .0001), reverse taper (OR, 5.95; P < .0001) and neck length (OR, 4.15; P = .0146) were for aortic cuff use; circumferential thrombus (OR, 2.44; P = .0448), and neck angle (OR, 3.38; P = .009) were for perioperative complications.

Conclusions: Patients with HNA can be treated with EVAR, but with higher rates of early (intraoperative) type I endoleak and intervention. The midterm outcomes arc similar to FNA. (J Vasc Surg 2011;54:13-21.)”
“Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in the (patho)physiology of stress-adaptation.

Point estimates

Point estimates GSK461364 molecular weight of model parameter values were estimated separately for the two data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. When model parameters were calibrated simultaneously to the two data sets, agreement between the derived parameters for the two groups was very good, and the central tendency values were similar to those derived from the deterministic approach. These findings are relevant to the proposed update of the ICRP human respiratory tract model with revisions to the alveolar-interstitial region based on this long-term

particle clearance and retention model. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT)

is regarded as one Nirogacestat cost of the confirmatory test in determining the safety of skin sensitizers. A number of important factors should be considered when conducting and interpreting the results of the HRIPT.

Objective: To investigate for probable critical factors that influence the results of HRIPT with the same protocol in Shanghai and Mumbai.

Methods: Two HRIPTs were carried out in Shanghai and Mumbai in 2011. Six identical products and I% sodium lauryl sulfate were tested. Two Chinese dermatologists performed the grading in the two cities. Climate conditions of Shanghai and Mumbai were also recorded.

Results: For four lower reaction ratio products, cumulative irritation scores in the induction phase were higher in individuals whose C188-9 mouse ethnicity was Indian rather than Chinese. Reaction ratio of the same four products was highly correlated to the climatic parameters. The other two higher reaction ratio products and the positive control had no difference between the two ethnicities.

Conclusion: Greater attention ought to be paid to the impact of climate on the results of HRIPT, especially for the mild irritation cosmetics when giving the interpretation. Greater emphasis also needs to be placed

on the ethnicity of the subjects. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.