Unexpected cell-specific and stress-specific NF-kappa B activation found in the inner ear in this in vivo study suggest that this approach may have
wide applications in demonstrating similar specializations of stress responses in other tissues, including the brain. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the stimulus characteristics necessary for the expression of c-fos protein in optokinetic system neurons using immunocytochemistry. Using whole-field visual motion as a stimulus, we found substantial c-fos expression in the optic tectum (TeO), the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM); in all cases immunostaining was seen only on the side contralateral to the eye FRAX597 viewing whole-field unidirectional motion; the side of the brain contralateral to the eye wearing a diffuser showed no staining. In the nBOR and the LM, different regions showed a remarkable specificity of c-fos expression depending on the direction of visual motion stimulation. Neurons were stained primarily in regions known from previous electrophysiological recordings to be maximally responsive AZD6738 molecular weight to that direction of motion; little staining was seen after
motion orthogonal to the preferred motion direction. Novel, continuous visual motion stimuli, lasting more than 30 min, was required for maximal c-fos expression, suggesting that brief periods of unidirectional optic flow, as would be experienced during normal life, do not stimulate the expression of c-fos. The largest number of neurons was labeled when birds raised from hatching with one eye covered by a diffuser were exposed to full-field visual motion immediately after the diffuser was switched from one eye to the other,
so that only the previously naive eye was visually stimulated. We conclude that the expression of c-fos in the optokinetic nuclei is linked to near peak firing rates on the one hand, and the novelty and duration of the visual signals, on the other, supporting the assumption that this expression is mainly Go6983 clinical trial related to stimulus contexts leading to neuronal plastic changes. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent evidence suggests that extracellular ATP modulates retinal processing and could play a role in modulating glial cells during retinal diseases. Here, we evaluated the localization of P2Y(1) receptors in the rat retina using indirect immunofluorescence immunocytochemistry. We observed labeling within defined populations of inner retinal neurons and Muller cell processes and end feet. Double labeling of P2Y(1) receptor with choline acetyltransferase revealed extensive colocalization indicating the expression of this receptor by cholinergic amacrine cells. Ganglion cell labeling for P2Y(1) receptors was also observed.