This work aims to elucidate the biocompatibility, inflammatory re

This work aims to elucidate the biocompatibility, inflammatory reactions, and particle effects on mice injected with a 5 mg dose of polyanhydride nanoparticles via common parenteral routes

(subcutaneous and intramuscular). Independent of polymer chemistry, nanoparticles more effectively disseminated away from the injection site as compared to microparticles, which exhibited a depot effect. Using fluorescent probes, the in vivo distribution of three formulations of nanoparticles, following subcutaneous administration, indicated migration away from the injection site. Less inflammation Bucladesine concentration was observed at the injection sites of mice-administered nanoparticles as compared to Alum and incomplete Freund’s adjuvant. Furthermore, histological evaluation revealed LY2835219 solubility dmso minimal adverse injection site reactions and minimal toxicological effects associated with the administration of nanoparticles at 30 days post-administration. Collectively, these

results demonstrate that polyanhydride nanoparticles do not induce inflammation as a cumulative effect of particle persistence or degradation and are, therefore, a viable candidate for a vaccine delivery platform.”
“Objective In a previous study, we found that patients who were offered the possibility of participation in a clinical trial had unexpressed concerns and fears that prevented them from making free or fully knowledgeable choices about their trial participation. In a selected population of patients who were offered participation in a phase I trial, we prospectively investigated whether a face-to-face discussion about their unexpressed fears might lead to a more conscious decision about whether to accept/refuse participation in the trial. Methods After the presentation of the trial, a questionnaire was administered to assess the presence of specific fears. Before the patients decided whether to participate in the trial, they discussed any fears that they had; finally, the impact of the discussion

on the patients’ choice to participate was evaluated. Results The majority (86%) of the patients thought selleck compound that physicians conduct clinical trials for scientific interest, 13% felt exploited as ‘guinea pigs’ and 20% believed they were offered participation because they had no further hope for improvement. These existing fears were not elicited during the trial interview because the patients were themselves unaware of having them (28%) and because of fear of the doctors (3%). The possibility of discussing these fears was felt as an opportunity and made patients feel more conscious (92%) and freer (97%) when making their choice. Conclusions Recognising and discussing misconceptions and fears, often unexpressed, make patients freer and more aware when facing the choice of whether or not \\to participate in a phase I clinical trial. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical

We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified LDK378 predictive

models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity

(ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Recent advances in functional brain imaging offer unique opportunities to explore the neurofunctional basis ABT-263 research buy of tools used to assess personality differences which have proven their clinical usefulness. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, find more the focus was on the amygdala

activation and we investigated whether individual differences in activity of the amygdala following presentation of emotional expressions in the face and the whole body may be systematically related to the presence of Type D (distressed) personality or to its constituting factors, Negative Affectivity (NA) and Social Inhibition (SI). Our results show that the observed difference in amygdala activity between fearful and neutral expressions was present in participants that did not meet the criteria for Type D personality, while this effect was absent in participants that could be classified as Type D personality. Our correlation analyses further showed that the activation in the left amygdala elicited by fearful, versus neutral bodily expressions correlated negatively with the Negative Affectivity score. The same pattern was observed for the right amygdala for fearful facial and bodily expressions when contrasted with neutral facial and bodily expressions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objective:\n\nDenture adhesives have long been recognised by denture wearers as a useful adjunct to denture retention and stability.

sTfR concentrations were similar in children with ferritin concen

sTfR concentrations were similar in children with ferritin concentrations smaller than 6 mu g/l and bigger than = 12 mu g/l. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the discriminative value of Ret-Hb and sTfR for the detection of iron depletion is limited. Our findings suggest that ferritin is the most useful biomarker in the screening of iron depletion in healthy

children in high-income countries. However, ideally, reference ranges of iron status biomarkers should be based on studies showing that children with concentrations outside reference ranges have poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.”
“Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers EPZ-6438 Epigenetics inhibitor were developed and validated for Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut tree) population genetic studies. This species is a widespread monotypic Amazonian tree with high non-timber economic value. Unfortunately, Brazil nut production is currently less than 25% of historical production levels, because of extensive deforestation. All pairs of primers produced clearly interpretable and polymorphic bands. No linkage disequilibrium was observed in an analysis of 46 individuals from one population, three to seven alleles per locus were observed; the expected Ulixertinib MAPK inhibitor heterozygosity ranged from 0.378 to 0.978, with significant heterozygote excess for four loci. An analysis of individuals from two

populations showed private alleles at all loci. These primer pairs will be useful for population studies, especially for comparing samples from different parts of the Amazon forest.”
“Genus Onobrychis is an important forage crop consisting

of approximately 130 annual and perennial species. The present research focused on the cytological studies of Embryogenic (E) and Non-Embryogenic (NE) callus as well as root meristem cells of in vitro and in vivo grown plants. On the contrary to the previous studies, a diploid viciifolia variety with 2n= 2x= 16 chromosomes was observed for the first time in Onobrychis viciifolia Scop Syn. Onobrychis sativa L. Mitotic division Liproxstatin-1 supplier was in general regular for all the growth conditions, but some such division irregularities as cytomixis, binucleate cells, micronucleus, asynchronous nucleus and chromosome bridge were also observed particularly in non-embryogenic callus samples. Ratio of nuclear to cell area of callus was slightly less than those in in vivo and in vitro values. Polyploidy level of DNA (C-value) was only indicated in callus. G(1) had the highest percentage of nucleus among different stages of the interphase in in vitro and in vivo growth cultures. Karyotypic formula was 10 m+6 sm and a secondary constriction was distinguished in the short arm of the second pair chromosomes. Ultimately, scanning electron microscopy was employed to differentiate between root cells of the in vitro and in vivo growth systems.

Patients exhibiting a choroideremia-like fundus without choroider

Patients exhibiting a choroideremia-like fundus without choroideremia gene mutations should also be screened for RP2 mutations.\n\nClinical Relevance: An identifiable phenotype for RP2-XLRP aids in clinical diagnosis and targeted genetic screening.”
“For phosphonated copolymers, the effect of distance of the phosphonate group from the polymer backbone on the Ca(2+) chelating capability and the adsorption behavior on cement was studied. For this purpose, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane

phosphonic acid (AMPPA) and vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA), respectively, were reacted in an aqueous free-radical polymerization with N,N-dimethylacrylamide (NNDMA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS(R)) to give poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanephosphonate) Epigenetics inhibitor (CaAMPS(R)-co-NND MA-co-CaAMPPA) and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate-co-vinylphosphonate) (CaAMPS-co-NNDMA-co-CaVPA), respectively. Adsorption behavior and thus performance of the terpolymers strongly depend on their calcium binding capacity. Ca(2+) selective conductivity measurements

show that the AMPPA modified terpolymer chelates less calcium than the VPA polymer. Therefore, it interacts less with surfaces containing calcium atoms/ions. To investigate the consequences for practical applications adsorbed amounts on cement surface and effectiveness as water retention agent (fluid loss additive, FLA) in oil well cement slurries with and without acetone-formaldehyde-sulfite (AFS) dispersant were determined.

CaAMPS-co-NNDMA-co-CaAMPPA and AFS adsorb simultaneously whereas CaAMPS-co-NNDMA-co-CaVPA does not allow dispersant adsorption. The reason is that affinity of phosphonate functions towards Ca(2+) SCH727965 ions is reduced with increasing distance from the polymer backbone. Thus, AMPPA is a weaker anchor group than VPA. Zeta potential measurements indicate that the increased length of the side chain holding the phosphonate function decreases the anionic charge density of the polymer. Accordingly, CaAMPS-co-NNDMA-co-CaAMPPA appears to develop weaker bonds with the cement surface. Upon addition of AFS, the AMPPA modified FLA can change its adsorbed conformation from “train” to “loop” or “tail” mode and thus provide space for the dispersant to adsorb as well. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 1758-1768, 2010″
“Forty six spring-calving Holstein-Friesians (12 primiparous, 34 pluriparous) were block-paired (expected calving date, parity, body condition score and genetic merit) and allocated to either a PASTURE or HOUSED system for a full production cycle (-40 to 305 days relative to calving). Both hind claws were inspected on six occasions (-40,10, 35.

The number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow doe

The number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow does not change during 2 years of treatment with SkQ1, but the concentration of MSC progeny fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F) increases with dose of SkQ1. The concentration of CFU-F after 1 and 2 years treatment with SkQ1 is twice higher than in young mice Our data indicate that the stromal environment of hematopoietic cells could be the primary target of age-dependent changes mediated by reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria. The anti-aging

effects of SkQ1 described here are in perfect agreement with the inhibitory effects of this antioxidant on aging observed in the other models. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Intraspinal schwannoma is a rare neoplasm in pediatric patients; cellular schwannoma is an unusual histological subtype of schwannoma. A six-month-old infant with an epidural dumbbell cellular schwannoma LDC000067 Dinaciclib presented with progressive weakness of his arms and legs. A spinal MRI revealed

an epidural mass from C5 to T4, and a complete surgical resection was achieved after laminotomy and facetectomy. The patient experienced a gradual neurological improvement and was still healthy without recurrence at the latest follow-up. The diagnosis of cellular schwannoma was confirmed on immunohistological examination. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction. It was reported that 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was independently associated AZD2014 price with anemia in chronic kidney diseases,

but the relation between vitaminD and anemia in diabetes mellitus is not still certain. We analyzed the relation between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and hemoglobin concentration. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in male patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. Correlation coefficients and standardized partial regression coefficient for the hemoglobin concentration were evaluated. Results. Hemoglobin concentration was positively correlated with body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, cholinesterase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and negatively correlated with age, duration of diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin creatinine ratio. Multiple regression analysis revealed the independent relation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to hemoglobin concentration. Conclusions. Plasma circulating form of vitamin D is significantly associated with hemoglobin concentration in diabetes mellitus independent of the clinical markers for kidney function or nutrition.”
“Objective To determine the roles of complement C4A and C4B gene copy-number variations and their plasma protein concentrations in residual insulin secretion and loss of pancreatic beta-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. Methods We studied 34 patients of European ancestry with new-onset T1D, aged between 3 and 17 yr (10.7 +/- 3.45), at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio.

However, recent reports have shown that injuries to posterior str

However, recent reports have shown that injuries to posterior structures, the cerebellum in particular, may have a role in language processing. Herein, we

will look first at the linguistic role of the cerebellum in light of the literature, then of the thalamus and some described clinical syndromes, and finally, specific syndromes resulting from occipital lobe lesions, all of which are supported by the posterior vascular system. The human brain is such this website a complex organization that in addition to the thalamus and occipital cortex, we can see the involvement of the cerebellum in high cognitive functions. Posterior system strokes may lead to clinical findings of cognitive deficits, including neurolinguistic components. Determining these defects in stroke patients may precipitate changes in current management strategies.”
“Electrochemical polymerization of acacia gum (AG) was initiated by electroactive polyaniline (PANI) monomers by radical cation formation and their coupling reactions with AG molecules. R(CT) values obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis at various AG

concentrations with PANI were drastically decreased, confirming formation of conducting AG complexes with PANI. Quantitative analysis of ochratoxin-A (OTA) detection in electrolyte was carried out on rabbit antibody-immobilized PANI and PANI-AG matrices. The observed sensitivities of 50, 150, and 250 mg AG-added PANI matrix-based platforms

were 3.3 +/- 0.5, 10.0 +/- 0.5, and 12.7 +/- 0.5 mu A/ng/ml, respectively. The sensitivity of only PANI electrodes was 2.6 +/- 0.3 mu A/ng/ml, which was relatively lower than AG-added PANI. This increase was due to the presence of glycan functional groups in AG molecules that supported the retention of activity of antibodies. In addition, enhanced electron transportation at AG-PANI film surface was observed due to formation of an electroactive polymer film of two different electroactive functions to contribute toward Selleckchem Wnt inhibitor enhancement in the detection sensitivity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A series of quinolines, including chloroquine and quinine, were identified as potent pigmentation inhibitors through screening a compound library in murine melanocytes. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that 4-substituted amino groups with a tertiary amine side chain, such as chloroquine, were associated with robust inhibitory activity. In contrast to many previously identified pigmentation inhibitors, these newly identified inhibitors had no effect on either the level or the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production. Rather, our results showed that these quinolines inhibited melanogenesis by disrupting the intracellular trafficking of tyrosinase-related proteins and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp-1).

The diagnosis of the tribe Didymozoini Monticelli, 1888 is amende

The diagnosis of the tribe Didymozoini Monticelli, 1888 is amended selleck chemicals to incorporate the genus Brasicystis, which is redescribed and revalidated here, with the proposal of an amended key. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The striped

stem borer moth, Chilo suppressalis, consists of two host-associated populations: a rice-feeding population and a water-oats-feeding population. We investigated the seasonal occurrence of each population using sex pheromone traps in paddy fields and adjacent water-oats vegetation. Trapped males were individually classified into their respective populations by morphometric analyses of genitalia. Although the first flight of the water-oats population was long, with 1 to 3 poorly resolved peaks during April to June, that of the rice population was much shorter, with a sharp

peak in early June. This result supports previous observations that adults of the overwintering generation of the water-oats Rabusertib concentration population occur about two months earlier than those of the rice population; however, it is uncertain how this difference enhances reproductive isolation between the two populations because the occurrence overlaps.”
“Here, we report a continuous flow protocol for the [3 + 2] cycloaddition of nitrones, in situ generated from oximes, into bicyclic isoxazolidines. This thermal process required very high temperatures to be efficient that were

not easily reached in conventional reactors. A click here couple of examples are presented and in both the flow process showed a greater performance than the batch mode. The process intensification study allowed the generation of 120 g/h of a key pharmaceutical intermediate.”
“The subdivision of mesodermal cells into muscle and non-muscle cells is crucial to animal development. In the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm, this subdivision is a result of an asymmetric cell division that leads to the formation of striated body wall muscles and non-muscle coelomocytes. Here we report that the Six homeodomain protein CEH-34 and its cofactor Eyes Absent, EYA-1, function synergistically to promote the non-muscle fate in cells also competent to form muscles. We further show that the asymmetric expression of ceh-34 and eya-1 is regulated by a combination of 1) mesodermal intrinsic factors MAB-5, HLH-1 and FOZI-1, 2) differential POP-1 (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activity along the anterior-posterior axis, and 3) coelomocyte competence factor(s). These factors are conserved in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting a conserved paradigm for mesoderm development in metazoans. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) plays an essential role in nitroglycerin (GTN) bioactivation, resulting in formation of NO or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase.

Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbi

\n\nSearch methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We also contacted trial authors.\n\nSelection criteria Randomised controlled trials in women at sufficient risk of preterm birth to warrant the use of prenatal corticosteroids to promote lung maturity. TRH and corticosteroids were compared with corticosteroids, with or without placebo.\n\nData collection and analysis All assessments of trial eligibility, risk of bias and data extractions were independently carried out by at least two review authors.\n\nMain

results Over 4600 women were recruited into the 15 trials included in the review, however two trials did not contribute any outcome data to the review. The trials had a selleck kinase inhibitor JPH203 moderate risk of bias. Overall, prenatal TRH, in addition to corticosteroids, did not reduce the risk of death prior to hospital discharge (risk ratio (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.27, six trials, 3694

infants), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (average RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.22, nine trials, 3833 infants), or chronic lung disease (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.19, five trials, 2511 infants), and did not improve any of the secondary fetal, neonatal or childhood outcomes assessed by intention-to-treat analyses.\n\nIndeed, the data showed prenatal TRH to have adverse effects for women and their infants. All side effects reported (nausea, vomiting, light headedness, urgency of micturition, facial flushing) were significantly more likely to occur in women receiving TRH. In the infants, prenatal TRH increased the risk of needing respiratory support (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.29, three trials, 1969 infants), and of having a low Apgar score at five minutes (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.92, three trials, 1969 infants). Only three trials provided data on childhood follow-up, and while one trial suggested poorer outcomes for infants who were exposed to prenatal TRH, the other two trials, that assessed infants using an established developmental

instrument, showed no clear differences between groups in follow-up outcomes.\n\nSensitivity analyses by trial quality, or subgroups Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor with differing times from entry to birth, or different dose regimens of TRH, did not change these findings.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nPrenatal TRH in addition to corticosteroids, given to women at risk of preterm birth, does not improve infant outcomes and can cause maternal side effects.”
“In this study, a most consumer-acceptable rye bread (RB) containing saffron (S) powder (RB+S) was designed to verify its anti-diabetic properties, and to compare these effects with those of RB and S separately, matched to a similar dose of bioactive components, used in the high-fat (HF) diet in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar rats. After baking, beneficial antioxidant and sensory properties for RB enriched with 0.

The objective of this study was to modify an existing procedure f

The objective of this study was to modify an existing procedure for plasma utilizing solid phase extraction/gas chromatography, and extend its use for measurement of structurally diverse mono- and sesquiterpenes in three fluids (serum, plasma, and rumen fluid) from sheep. GSK3326595 clinical trial Generally, terpene recovery was lower from rumen fluid than from serum or plasma, although the extent and direction of differences varied among chemicals. Fourteen terpenes (camphene, beta-pinene, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, cis-beta-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, linalool, camphor, longifolene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide) were recovered from serum at near unity. Recovery

from rumen fluid was lower than that for serum or plasma for most terpenes, but eight (p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, cis-sabinene hydrate, terpinolene, borneol, terpin-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, and caryophyllene oxide) were recovered at near unity. Yet, 15 terpene recoveries were below 0.75 ng/ng (tricyclene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, 2-carene, 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, cis-beta-ocimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, longifolene, beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene). Oxygenated monoterpenes were typically recovered in greater quantities and hydrocarbon monoterpenes were least effectively recovered with this method. This procedure

allows for simultaneous measurement and recovery adjustment Selleck Crenigacestat of a number of terpenes from serum, plasma, and rumen fluid of sheep. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4) inhibitors present a new therapeutic alternative in the field of

oral anti-diabetic therapy. By targeting the incretin system, they lead to glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression.\n\nThe currently available DPP-4 inhibitors, sitagliptin and vildagliptin, have been approved for use in combination with other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Recent studies on these substances have resulted in a mean decrease of haemoglobin A(1c) of 0.74%, which is less than that of substances previously made available. In addition, DPP-4 inhibitors positively influence fasting glucose levels and improve post-prandial glucose utilization, however, no major effects on Selleckchem RG-7388 lipid metabolism have been observed so far.\n\nThe main advantage to be seen with DPP-4 inhibitors is that they don’t seem to induce excessive weight gain – something that cannot be said for other anti-diabetics such as sulfonylureas and glitazones.\n\nThe safety profile of these compounds cannot be assessed conclusively from the currently available data. However, overall, DPP-4 inhibitors have been well tolerated in all previously published trials, with low total numbers of adverse drug-induced effects. Further end-point studies and clinical observations are required before a conclusive evaluation of the efficacy-safety profile on these substances can be made.

In the neurohypophysis, immunostaining of basal lamina delineated

In the neurohypophysis, immunostaining of basal lamina delineated meningeal invaginations. In these invaginations, vessels were seen to penetrate the organ without submerging into its parenchyma. On the parenchymal side of the invaginations, beta-dystroglycan was detected, whereas utrophin was detected

in the walls of vessels. Immunostaining of alpha 1-dystrobrevin and alpha 1-syntrophin did not delineate the vessels. The cells of the intermediate lobe were fully immunoreactive to alpha 1-dystrobrevin and alpha 1-syntrophin, whereas components of the basal selleck compound lamina delineated the contours of the cells. GFAP-immunoreactive processes surrounded them. Aquaporin-4 localized at the periphery of the neurohypophysis, mainly adjacent to the intermediate lobe but not along the vessels. It colocalized only partially with GFAP and not at all with alpha 1-syntrophin. Aquaporin-9 was not detected. These results emphasize the possibility that the components of the dystrophin dystroglycan complex CYT387 purchase localize differently and raise the question about the roles of dystrobrevins, alpha 1-syntrophin, and aquaporin-4 in the functions of the intermediate and neural lobes, respectively. (J Histochem Cytochem

58:463-479, 2010)”
“DNA microarrays have become one of the most powerful tools in the field of genomics and medical diagnosis. Recently, there has been increased interest in combining microfluidics with microarrays since this approach offers advantages in terms of portability, reduced analysis time, low consumption of reagents, and increased system integration. Polymers are widely used for microfluidic systems, but fabrication of microarrays on such materials often requires complicated chemical surface modifications, which hinders Ro-3306 concentration the integration of microarrays into microfluidic systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that simple UV irradiation can be used to directly immobilize poly(T)poly(C)-tagged

DNA oligonucleotide probes on many different types of plastics without any surface modification. On average, five- and fourfold improvement in immobilization and hybridization efficiency have been achieved compared to surface-modified slides with aminated DNA probes. Moreover, the TC tag only costs 30% of the commonly used amino group modifications. Using this microarray fabrication technique, a portable cyclic olefin copolymer biochip containing eight individually addressable microfluidic channels was developed and used for rapid and parallel identification of Avian Influenza Virus by DNA hybridization. The one-step, cost-effective DNA-linking method on non-modified polymers significantly simplifies microarray fabrication procedures and permits great flexibility to plastic material selection, thus making it convenient to integrate microarrays into plastic microfluidic systems.