The physiological and structural characteristics of leaves determine their typically low visible light reflectance except in green light. Past the visible, high near-infrared reflectance of vegetation allows optical remote sensing to capture detailed information about the live, photosynthetically active forest canopy structure, and thus begin to understand the mass exchange between the atmosphere and the forest ecosystem. Algorithms and models used as an input parameter to predict or estimate ecological variables have been developed using remotely sensed datasets based LAI [13�C16]. For example, LAI obtained from optical remotely sensed data serves as a key parameter to estimate aboveground biomass of forest stands .
Due to recent availability, fine resolution spatial and spectral (hyperspectral) remotely sensed data are being used to retrieve LAI and other biochemical contents such as chlorophyll in leaves of forests [18�C20]. Also in recent years, due to the emergence of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) techniques and equipment, numerous methodologies are being developed for point cloud datasets obtained from LiDAR to assess vegetation and forest three-dimensional structures [21�C26]. The explicit three-dimensional information contained in LiDAR point clouds offers the ability to investigate forest health [27,28], forest stand structure and biophysical parameters [29�C33]. Particularly, terrestrial LiDAR, with very high density point clouds, allows for improved retrieval of forest stand structure information including LAI [34,35].
Meanwhile, factors influencing the accuracy of leaf area density estimation have been investigated [31,36] Drug_discovery including attention to leaf-on and leaf-off conditions [37, 38]. LiDAR has been used to monitor forest stands and environmental changes through the use of LAI as a key indicator parameter . Currentely, due to single spectral band information deficiency, LiDAR has been combined with other hyperspectral remotely sensed datasets to obtain more comprehensive information about biophysical characteristics of forest ecosystems . In recent years, a theory based on the spectral invariant property of leaves has been applied to retrieve LAI and physical canopy height from optical sensors including single- [42,43] and multiple-angles . The radiation budget theory characterizes the structural and spectral contribution in simulating the bidirectional reflectance factor in an efficient way and introduces new principles of photon-vegetation reflectance interaction, whereby one can characterize gap probability and gap fraction in terms of photon recollection probability and escape probability.