Byun HJ, Hong IK, Kim E, Jin YJ, Jeoung DI, Hahn JH, Kim YM, Park SH, Lee H: A splice variant of CD99 increases motility and MMP-9 expression of human breast cancer cells through the AKT-, ERK-, and JNK-dependent AP-1 activation signaling pathways. J Biol Chem 2006, 281:34833–34847.PubMedCrossRef 22. Schlaepfer DD, Mitra SK: Multiple connections link FAK to cell motility and invasion. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2004, 14:92–101.PubMedCrossRef 23. Cao J, Chiarelli C, Richman O, Zarrabi
K, Kozarekar P, Zucker S: Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer. J Biol Chem 2008, 283:6282–6240. Competing interests We have no financial or other conflicts of interest that might influence the results or interpretation of our study. Authors’ contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: Rongjian Cilengitide price Su, Junsheng Luo. Performed the experiments:
Hongdan EX 527 cell line Li, Huijuan Song, Jia Liang and Song Zhao. Analyzed the data: Hongdan Li and Huijuan Song. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotides long, endogenous, single-stranded, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Since their discovery in 1993, www.selleckchem.com/products/qnz-evp4593.html miRNAs have caused worldwide interest due to their characteristic function and modes of action, providing a new understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology. MiRNAs have been shown to regulate a variety of cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, ageing and cell death. As such, the importance of miRNAs is increasingly recognized in almost all fields of biological and biomedical fields . In humans, it has been estimated that there are more than 1000 miRNAs in the genome which regulate approximately 60% of all protein-coding genes [2, 3]. Recently, the importance of miRNAs in oncogenesis
has been recognized. Dysregulation of miRNA expression plays a key role in cancer development through various mechanisms including deletions, amplifications, almost epigenetic silencing, or mutations in miRNA loci, the dysregulation of transcription factors that target specific miRNAs . MiRNAs expression profiling studies, using microarrays and other methods, can be used to differentiate normal from cancer tissues as well as to classify different tumor types and grades. Furthermore, specific miRNAs expression features have been found to correlate with cancer prognosis and therefore have the potential to be used to determine the course of treatment [5–7]. The discovery of circulating miRNAs in cancer patients holds great promise for the use of miRNAs as distinctive, non-invasive cancer biomarkers. In this review, we focus on the origin and function of circulating miRNAs, and discuss their characteristics and their potential application as powerful biomarkers in cancer diagnostics.