We found evidence that (1) two foci are genetically isolated; and (2) the newly emergent focus comprised numerous unrelated haplotypes. As a corollary, we would expect that F. tularensis tularensis sampled
from a https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly3039478.html single longterm microfocus would Ralimetinib be less diverse due to stabilizing selection. In fact, F. tularensis from Squibnocket has by all measures (Table 2) less diversity than that from Katama, despite the fact that approximately 5 times more samples were typed. This is primarily due to the large predominance of a single haplotype, 10 7 4 30. In contrast, F. tularensis from Katama does not have a single dominant haplotype but a few equally frequent haplotypes. Taken together, these observations suggest that our metapopulation model for F. tularensis perpetuation is empirically based. Table 2 Diversity of VNTR loci over the course of the study: 2003–2007 for Squibnocket and 2004–2007 for Katama. Squibnocket Katama Together Loci D No. alleles No. repeats D No. alleles No. repeats D No. alleles No. repeats Ft-M3 (SSTR9) ATM Kinase Inhibitor chemical structure 0.45 5 8–13 0.56 4 16–20 0.58 9 8–20 Ft-M10 (SSTR16) 0.32 7 4–21 0.77 8 9–16 0.48 13 4–21 Ft-M9 0.04 2 4–5 0.09 2 4–5 0.05 2 4–5 Ft-M2 0.78 20 15–38 0.91 11 18–33 0.81 22 15–38 Ft-M3, M10, M9 0.56 16 na 0.83 12 na 0.67 28 na All 0.88 52 na 0.96 23 na 0.91 75 na (Ft-M6 and Ft-M8 were omitted
because they are invariant) Analysis of the population structure of the samples from Squibnocket using eBURST yielded a star diagram indicative of a clonal complex of circulating bacteria (Figure 3). The vast majority of the population of F. tularensis from Squibnocket is likely to be related to each other. Greater than 95% of the sampled population of haplotypes can be connected by single locus variants. The putative founder, 10 7 30, is also the dominant haplotype. This structure is consistent with the hypothesis that our site on Squibnocket is indeed a single focus of transmission. Analysis of multilocus linkage disequilibrium Tau-protein kinase in our study was consistent with a clonal population. New alleles
are generated primarily through slip-strand mispairing of the repeat regions during replication. Therefore, the rate of generation of new alleles is directly related to the rate of replication and the number of generations. Long-term foci maintaining high levels of transmission would then be expected to generate new haplotypes constantly. Furthermore, the majority of the new haplotypes are expected to be progeny of the ones currently circulating. Figure 3 eBURST analysis of F. t. tularensis VNTR haplotypes from questing D. variabilis collected comparing Squibnocket, an established site of transmission, to Katama, a newly emerging site. Recently, we conducted a study in which we mapped, using a hand-held global positioning system (GPS), the distribution of ticks testing positive for F. tularensis on our Squibnocket field site.