In addition, string vessels (twisted capillaries) in the cerebral white matter and increased density of CD34-immunoreactive vessels cAMP inhibitor were observed in CS cases. Immunohistochemistry findings for aquaporin 4 indicated no pathological changes in either CS or XP-A cases. Hence, the increased subarachnoid artery space may have caused subdural hemorrhage.
Since such vascular changes were not observed in XP-A cases, the increased density of vessels in CS cases was not caused by brain atrophy. Hence, brain vascular changes may be involved in neurological disturbances in CS. “
“Pituitary adenoma with ossification is a rare histological variant. Previously there have been four cases reported in the literature. Here a case of pituitary prolactin-producing adenoma with bone formation in a 21-year-old woman is described. The patient had irregular menstruation for three years. MRI revealed an unusual 1.5 cm3 ovoid nodule
with partial shell-like structure showing heterogeneous signals. The pre-operative prolactin serum level was 258.78 ng/mL. The patient was operated through the trans-sphenoidal pathway under general anesthesia. Histologically, Kinase Inhibitor Library price the tumor was parenchymal and mostly replaced by the well-differentiated lamellar bony tissue. Sheets of tumor cells interweaved with the mature lamellar bone trabeculae showing no cellular atypia. The cytoplasm
of the adenoma cells was slightly eosinophilic and the myelo-adipose metaplastic foci were also found within the parenchyma. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells showed positive expressions of prolactin, synaptophysin and chromogranin A in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Meanwhile, negative expressions of S-100, epithelial membrane antigen, GFAP and other pituitary hormones were also demonstrated. As a rare histological variant of pituitary adenoma, the current case of pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification is reported. It is speculated that the ossification either may be derived from the osteo-metaplasia of mesenchymal fibroblasts resulting from the effects of both secondary ischemia by the outgrowth of the tumor and/or the autocrine effect of prolactin in this case. The bony shell structure may limit the growth of pituitary adenoma. “
“Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, which originates in the cerebellum, presumably due to the alterations of some neurogenetic elements. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC), regulates differentiation of neuronal stem cells but its status in medulloblastomas remains largely unknown. The current study aimed to address this issue by checking SIRT1 expression in noncancerous cerebellar tissues, medulloblastoma tissues and established cell lines.