An independent data monitoring committee selected two indacaterol doses based on unblinded results of an interim analysis performed by an independent statistician. The sponsor, investigators and patients remained blinded to the results. The indacaterol doses were selected using pre-set efficacy criteria for trough (24-h post-dose) and early (1-4 h post-dose) bronchodilator effect after 14 days, and all safety data. To qualify for selection, the doses had to exceed a threshold for clinical relevance or be superior to either tiotropium or formoterol, whichever was the highest value. Selected doses were continued AZD8186 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor into the second, 26-week stage. The two other indacaterol doses not selected,
and formoterol, were discontinued following VX-680 in vitro dose selection.\n\nResults: 801 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were evaluated. Indacaterol 150 mu g was the lowest effective dose, exceeding criteria for trough FEV(1) (reference value 140 mL vs placebo) and FEV(1) AUC(1-4h)) (reference value 220 mL vs placebo). No safety signal was observed with any dose of indacaterol. Thus, indacaterol 150 and 300 mu g were selected to continue into the second, 26-week stage.\n\nConclusion: The adaptive seamless design is a novel and efficient way to combine dose selection with efficacy evaluation and safety confirmation in a single trial. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To study the ocular surface changes in
eyes after Descemet stripping
automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) compared with those after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP).Methods: This prospective study compared the changes in 31 eyes of 28 patients who underwent DSAEK (DSAEK group) with those in 15 disease-matched eyes of 15 patients who underwent PKP (PKP group). Corneal epithelial integrity was evaluated using a fluorescein staining score. Corneal sensation was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Tear function was evaluated using the Schirmer test, tear clearance test, tear function index, and tear break-up time.Results: The postoperative fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the PKP group than in the DSAEK group (P = 0.02). Postoperative corneal sensation was significantly better in the DSAEK group than in the PKP group (P < 0.01). Corneal sensation after DSAEK was significantly better than the preoperative BVD-523 value (P = 0.02). There were no statistically significant changes in the Schirmer test, tear clearance test, tear function index, or break-up time before and after the surgery in both the DSAEK and PKP groups. No significant differences were observed between the DSAEK and PKP groups after the surgery.Conclusions: Corneal sensation was preserved, and epithelial damage was less severe after DSAEK compared with PKP. Preservation of corneal sensation may contribute to the early recovery of visual function and long-term maintenance of ocular surface health after DSAEK.