Sea Trout samples were obtained with the assistance of the Nation

Sea Trout samples were obtained with the assistance of the National Atmospheric Oceanic Administration Research Vessel, the Oregon II and Dr. Chuck Weirich at Aqua Green. Wild alligator gar samples were collected with the assistance of Dr. Allyse Ferrara and Ricky Verrett at Nicholls State University. Control, hatchery reared juvenile alligator gar were provided

by Ricky Campbell and Carlos Echevarria of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The authors also wish to acknowledge the assistance of Robert Ford (retired biologist), and Dr. Janice Chambers and Jenny Wagner in the MSU Center of Environmental Health Sciences. “
“While major accidental oil spills from tankers are relatively Ivacaftor rare occurrences, the transportation of oil remains one of the main concerns for the various stakeholders in the protection of the marine environment (Dalton and Jin, 2010). Not only

can oil spills have a devastating effect on the marine ecosystem (Lecklin et al., 2011), they involve high acute costs through clean-up operations (Montewka et al., 2013c), learn more have a considerable impact on affected economic activities (Crotts and Mazanec, 2013 and Garcia Negro et al., 2009) and can have cultural and behavioral effects on local communities (Miraglia, 2002). As an aid in maritime transportation risk management, methods for quantitative risk assessment of maritime traffic have been developed (Özbaş, 2013). These provide insight in the spatial distribution of accidental risk of ship traffic, which can, mafosfamide when coupled to environmental sensitivity and risk analysis (Delpeche-Ellmann

and Soomere, 2013 and Singkran, 2013), provide input to maritime spatial planning (Frazao Santos et al., 2013) and planning of oil combating resources (Lee and Jung, 2013). Risk assessment methods can also be used to assess the effect of proposed risk control options (van Dorp and Merrick, 2011). Worldwide, ship groundings, collisions and fires are the most frequently occurring accident types (Guedes Soares and Teixeira, 2001) and also in the Gulf of Finland, groundings and collisions represent the majority of the accident types (Kujala et al., 2009). Assessing oil spills from such accidents thus is an important aspect of maritime risk assessment. In this paper, we limit the scope to cargo oil spill size assessment of a product tanker in a ship–ship collision, i.e. vessels with a deadweight between 10 k and 60 k (Evangelista, 2002). A number of oil spill models have been developed. Przywarty (2008) and Gucma and Przywarty (2008) report on an oil spill model based on the analysis of accident statistics, which cannot account for specific traffic characteristics. IMO, 2003 and IMO, 1995 presents a model for measuring the outflow performance of a particular vessel design against a reference double-hull design.

Gleichermaßen ist uns kürzlich ein Fall sporadischer CJK zur Kenn

Gleichermaßen ist uns kürzlich ein Fall sporadischer CJK zur Kenntnis gelangt, wo bei dem betroffenen Patienten eine Hämochromatose diagnostiziert wurde (genetisch nicht bestätigt) MK-2206 nmr (EHH, unpublizierte Daten). Hämochromatose ist nicht nur durch Fe-Überladung gekennzeichnet, die mit Prionenerkrankungen in Zusammenhang stehen könnte [220], sondern auch durch Mn-Überschuss

[206]. Diese Beobachtung könnte die Annahmen einer möglichen Beziehung zwischen Hämochromatose und Prionenerkrankungen stützen [206]. In jüngster Zeit wurde vorgeschlagen, dass eine Abnahme des Transferrin-Gehalts im Liquor ein diagnostischer Marker für Prionenerkrankungen sein könnte [221]. Dies könnte auch mit der oben erwähnten Hypothese im Einklang stehen, da Mn-Transferrin eine der Formen ist, in denen das Metall ins Gehirn gelangt (Übersicht in Yokel [225]). Chronische Mn-Behandlung von Makaken [222] induziert die Hochregulation von APLP 1 (Amyloid Precursor-like buy Quizartinib Protein 1), wie durch Immunhistochemie bestätigt wurde, sowie diffuse Amyloid-β-Plaques im frontalen Cortex,

was möglicherweise die Annahme einer Verbindung zwischen fortgeschrittenem Manganismus und Demenz stützt [223]. Diese Studie wurde jedoch nur an einer begrenzten Stichprobe mit einiger Variabilität hinsichtlich des Alters, der Mn-Exposition, der Dosis und der Behandlungsdauer durchgeführt. Außerdem wurden diese Tiere wiederholt anästhetisiert, um intravenöse Injektionen und neuroradiologische Untersuchungen möglich zu machen [224], so dass die Genexpression durch die Vollnarkose verändert worden sein könnte. Jedoch scheint die Möglichkeit einer Verbindung zwischen Mn und der Alzheimer-Krankheit von großem Interesse und verdient weitere Untersuchungen.

Untersuchungen aus den letzten Jahrzehnten haben unser Verständnis der Gesundheitsrisiken einer Exposition gegenüber Mn und der damit verbundenen Symptome deutlich vorangebracht und unsere Kenntnisse über PRKACG den Mn-Transport und die molekularen Mechanismen der zellulären Neurogeneration vertieft. Mehrere Mn-Transporter sind identifiziert und die komplexen Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Mn und Fe sowie anderen divalenten Metallen sind beleuchtet worden. Außerdem wurden neurotoxische Mechanismen, die Mn und anderen mitochondrialen Giften gemeinsam sind, wurden ebenfalls geklärt. Während Manganismus und PS sowie andere neurologische Störungen in ihren frühen Stadien mit unterschiedlichen neurologischen Symptomen einhergehen, legen die vielfältigen und auffälligen Ähnlichkeiten auf der klinischen, physiologischen, zellulären und molekularen Ebene nahe, dass ihrer Ätiologie gemeinsame neurodegenerative Vorgänge zugrunde liegen.

At 1 home, staff members remarked that they were surprised by how

At 1 home, staff members remarked that they were surprised by how few direct care staff attended care conferences. Findings on care conference attendance can lead to an exploration of ways to improve participation within individual NHs, and present an opportunity for benchmarking across homes nationwide. The phase 1 and phase 3 data collection took place with a convenience sample of NHs, and therefore the findings cannot be considered to represent homes overall. However, professional and paraprofessional

staffing at the phase 3 pilot sites was remarkably similar to national levels. Pilot sites generally were high performing (4–5 stars) and some already had participated in QI initiatives. This group may be more likely than the norm to adopt PCC measurement tools and methods. NHs with a low rating selleckchem are more likely to focus on basic quality

of care than PCC improvement. Also, in phase 3, most sites chose to interview NH residents who were cognitively capable and able to speak. Although the phase 1 validation study tested the concept of preference congruence with residents with some degree of cognitive impairment, the AE phase 3 pilot did not focus on this population. A further limitation is that the phase 3 pilot study reflected a 2-week timeframe. More data are needed over a longer period to see whether staff engage in interviews and use PCC information to improve daily care practices consistently. One pilot community intends to use positive feedback from the toolkit to reinforce staff efforts, celebrate successes, and motivate further engagement in QI. triclocarban In terms of timing, the PCC toolkit recommends interviewing residents upon admission and before care conferences as a way to keep up with changes in preferences over time. An additional limitation is that the pilot study did not measure resident satisfaction with preference fulfillment prior to implementing preference congruence interviews. A future study will begin with this step in order to gain insight on pre- and postsatisfaction

levels. The AE PCC project is the first initiative to collect data from NHs nationwide regarding resident-centered care planning and resident satisfaction with 16 elements of PCC. Over time, the project expects to develop a rich database that can be used for benchmarking on these key indicators. However, PCC is a broad concept that encompasses many more dimensions of NH life that could also become the focus for benchmarking. These include the presence of a homelike environment; choice and self-determination for residents; flexible schedules for residents; meaningful activity and socialization opportunities; high quality interaction with staff; and workforce policies that support PCC (eg, staff training in PCC practices, consistent staffing assignments) as well as other indicators.

78) Changes in patients’ physical quality of life (Fgroup = 0 93

78). Changes in patients’ physical quality of life (Fgroup = 0.934; p = 0.443), mean physical activity (Fgroup = 0.377; p = 0.825) did not vary among DMPs aimed at different conditions. We did find a difference in the percentage of patients that quit smoking across diseases (p < 0.01). The percentage of cardiovascular patients that quit smoking was 6% (out of 637 patients), COPD patients 11% (out of 319 patients), diabetic patients BAY 73-4506 price 7% (out of 178 patients), heart failure patients 0% (out of 20 patients) and patients with comorbidity 3% (out of 88 patients). The results of multilevel

analyses (n = 931) are displayed in Table 2. After adjusting for patients’ physical quality of life at T0, age, educational level, marital status, and gender, these analyses showed that the mean number of days per week with more than 30 min of physical activity at T0 (p < 0.01), changes in physical activity (p < 0.001), and percentage of smokers at T0 (p < 0.05) predicted patients’ physical quality of life at T1. Higher levels of physical activity at T0 were related to better physical quality of life at T1 (B = 0.41), and the addition of 1 day of physical activity between T0 and T1 improved physical quality of life (B = 0.42), assuming that all other factors in the model remained constant. Multilevel analyses on imputed data showed similar results. Results

based on imputed data showed that after adjusting for patients’ physical quality of life at T0, age, educational level, marital status, and gender, physical activity at T0 (p < 0.05), TSA HDAC price changes in physical activity (p < 0.01), and percentage of smokers at T0 (p < 0.05) predicted improved physical quality of life at T1. In agreement with the results of the quantitative analysis, the qualitative research showed that project managers felt DMPs had contributed

to healthier behaviors in patients, especially with regard to smoking cessation. Most respondents indicated that DMP implementation had changed the form of provider–patient interactions. Professionals within practices made more concrete attempts to engage with the “person” rather than the patient. This change was reflected in small things that Venetoclax ic50 might initially seem to be irrelevant to direct care, such as being courteous to patients in the waiting room, but also in the nature of consultation. DMPs made more systematic use of motivational interviewing, leading to the development of more concrete action plans with patients that specified physical activities and clearly defined targets. This shift was described by several project managers: “The change from ‘doctor knows best’ to making an individual care plan and trying to motivate more people to make changes for themselves. That you move away from the idea that there is only one way to effect change. That’s what I see as the major shift. It’s a different way of thinking.

Consistent with an earlier study,16 p58 abundance was reduced, ar

Consistent with an earlier study,16 p58 abundance was reduced, arguing for impaired NS5A hyperphosphorylation (Supplementary

Figure 2). This was not the case with the Y93H mutant demonstrating specificity of this phenotype. However, alteration of hyperphosphorylation is not unique to NS5A inhibitors and was also found when polyprotein cleavage was blocked with telaprevir selleck compound (Supplementary Figure 2). Owing to the high potency of NS5A inhibitors, mechanistic studies are flawed by the rapid loss of viral RNA and protein when using HCV replication systems. To circumvent this problem, for further analyses, we utilized an expression-based system supporting efficient expression of viral proteins and enabling mechanistic studies independent from RNA replication (Supplementary Figure 3A). 6 Given the reported binding of NS5A to the 3′ untranslated region of the HCV genome, this RNA element

was included in all expression constructs. 23 In this system, an approximately 17-fold higher concentration of NS5A inhibitor is required to induce phenotypic effects comparable with HCV replicons, 17 therefore, we used 5× and 50× EC90 for most subsequent analyses. We found that stability of NS5A was unaltered by BMS-553, as neither steady-state levels of NS5A ( Figure 1D) nor half-lives of the phosphovariants were affected ( Supplementary Figure 3B–D). Because of the symmetric nature of potent NS5A inhibitors, it has been proposed

that these compounds might block NS5A self-interaction.24 BKM120 mw To address this assumption, we conducted Förster resonance energy transfer–based experiments using NS5A proteins encompassing the N-terminal AH and DI (aa 1–199). DI is sufficient to form homodimers10, 11 and 12 and, indeed, NS5A self-interaction was readily detectable but unaffected by BMS-553 treatment (not shown). Previous studies have shown that properly phosphorylated and fully functional NS5A requires its expression in the context of an NS3–5A minimal polyprotein.25 Therefore, to determine the impact of BMS-553 on self-interaction of NS5A in its native state, we co-expressed 2 independent NS3-5B polyproteins with differently tagged Edoxaban NS5A; however, no NS5A dimerization was detected (not shown). Assuming that NS5A dimerization “in trans” might be inefficient, we generated a “tandem NS5A” construct (Supplementary Figure 4A). This tandem NS5A cassette encoding 2 differently tagged NS5As was fully functional as it supported replication and was sensitive to inhibitor treatment ( Supplementary Figure 4B and C). When this tandem-NS5A cassette was studied in our expression system, we clearly observed NS5A self-interaction, but it was not affected by BMS-553 ( Figure 1E). To determine the mechanism of NS5A inhibitor resistance, we utilized 2 biotin-conjugated stereoisomers (Figure 2A).

, 2004) have been described in language-impaired children and adu

, 2004) have been described in language-impaired children and adults. Atypical rightward asymmetry is also described in SLI in the posterior language cortex (Herbert et al., 2005 and Jernigan et al., 1991), including posterior peri-Sylvian areas (Plante, Swisher, Vance, & Rapcsak, 1991) and the planum temporale specifically (Gauger et al., 1997; but see Preis, Jäncke, Schittler, Huang, & Steinmetz, 1998). These studies suggest that abnormal brain development, possibly of a genetic aetiology, results in atypical structural asymmetries

that in turn give rise to abnormal functional organisation. Consistent with this notion, studies of the functional organisation of language in SLI suggest weak language skills are associated with departures from the normal pattern of left-hemisphere specialisation for BKM120 language. The first studies to investigate this question used

single-photon this website emission computed tomography (SPECT) to measure regional cerebral blood flow. Three studies measured blood flow at rest and found reduced asymmetry, or hypoperfusion of the left hemisphere, or both in language-impaired children compared to controls (Denays et al., 1989, Lou et al., 1990 and Ors et al., 2005). A further SPECT study used a dichotic listening task to activate language areas, and found less left hemisphere activation in children with language problems compared to controls (Chiron et al., 1999). Two subsequent studies using functional magnetic resonance crotamiton imaging

(fMRI) did not find convincing lateralisation differences between cases with SLI versus controls, but they used activation tasks that did not give substantial hemispheric differences in the control group (Ellis Weismer et al., 2005 and Hugdahl et al., 2004). One fMRI study used listening to a recording of the mother’s voice to successfully activate the left hemisphere in 10 of 14 controls, and whereas right hemisphere activation was seen in 5 of 6 late talkers over the age of 3 years (Bernal & Altman, 2003). Further evidence of atypical cerebral lateralisation was found by Whitehouse and Bishop (2008), who used functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound to measure lateralised blood flow during a word generation task. They found that either symmetrical responses or right hemisphere bias were significantly more common in adults with persistent language impairment than in controls. There is, then, growing evidence of atypical lateralisation of brain responses in language tasks, but only a handful of relevant studies have been conducted. Also, to our knowledge, none have related abnormal functional organisation to brain structural abnormalities in SLI. An exception is studies of the KE family, where researchers have found related abnormalities in brain structure and function in affected family members (see Vargha-Khadem, Gadian, Copp, & Mishkin, 2005).

We also concurred that many radionuclide sources can be used, but

We also concurred that many radionuclide sources can be used, but only 125I, 103Pd, and 106Ru are used in three or more ABS-OOTF centers. Although there exist tumor thickness restrictions for 106Ru and 90Sr, 17-AAG concentration taller tumors can be treated with 125I or 103Pd techniques [7], [11], [13] and [72]. Overall, the ABS-OOTF expanded general indications for uveal melanoma patient selection (Table 2). Fianlly, we found that plaque brachytherapy is not commonly used for Rb. However, indications include: small anterior tumors in unilateral cases, for salvage after chemoreduction with subsequent alternative therapies and in select cases in which macular laser will likely cause loss of vision. The ABS-OOTF recommends

that the eye cancer community use universal

AJCC–UICC staging to define tumor size, location, and associated variables Navitoclax price [87] and [88]. This would enable multicenter communication, comparative analysis, and patient education. This in turn, would allow for collection of numbers large enough to reach statistical significance. The ABS-OOTF recommends the development of a site-specific staging system for complications after ophthalmic radiation therapy. This would facilitate scientific comparisons between treatments, help predict ophthalmic side effects, and improve informed consent. However, the ABS-OOTF acknowledges the myriad unanswered questions that challenge ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy researchers. Select questions offered by the ABS-OOTF include: What are the radiobiological differences between continuous low-dose-rate plaque brachytherapy in comparison with fractionated high-dose-rate proton beam irradiation? What is the “correct” apical prescription dose and dose rate required for treatment of uveal melanoma, and how do we accommodate for the steep

dose gradient within the tumor? For example, should there be a dose deescalation study or a thickness-based sliding scale in treatment of uveal melanoma? Can there be international standards for dosimetry to determine the relative efficacy of photons, electrons, and protons? Is there a role for radiation sensitizers during plaque therapy? Should the presence of intravitreal melanoma acetylcholine seeds affect case selection? What is the role and best timing for the use of anti-VEGF agents in treatment of radiation maculopathy and optic neuropathy? Are there differences in the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents related to radionuclide, radiation dose, and dose rate? Do notched and slotted plaques address geographic miss in the treatment of juxtapapillary and circumpapillary tumors? With regard to Rb, are there oncogenic risks of plaque brachytherapy? What are the optimal parameters for tumor size selection and radiation dose (if used before or after chemotherapy)? The ABS-OOTF hopes future research will answer some of these questions. Currently, plaque brachytherapy offers an eye and vision sparing alternative to enucleation annually for thousands of patients’ worldwide.

4A and B) The analysis of MCP-1 gene synthesis in tracheal tissu

4A and B). The analysis of MCP-1 gene synthesis in tracheal tissue showed lower levels of MCP-1 mRNA in tissue collected from HQ-exposed animals than in tracheal tissue collected from vehicle-exposed mice ( Fig. 4C and D).

A direct action of HQ on chemoattractant R428 secretion was observed as reduced levels of MCP-1 were found in the supernatant of in vitro HQ-treated naive AMs ( Fig. 5A) and tracheal tissue ( Fig. 5B). It is noteworthy that the effect does not reflect cell toxicity, as HQ incubation did not induce AMs death, assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay (data not shown). In order to determine the associations between the actions of in vivo HQ exposure on MCP-1 secretion and mononuclear cell migration, THP-1 monocytic cells were used in a Boyden chamber. Using the concentrations of MCP-1 detected in tracheal tissue from animals exposed to vehicle (0.9 ng/ml) or to HQ (0.1 ng/ml) as chemotactic agents, it was observed that MCP-1 induces a dose-related direct migration of mononuclear cells ( Fig. 6). The increase in levels of environmental pollution has been attributed not only to advances in technology but also to anthropogenic activities. Epidemiological studies have associated the increase in air pollutants with respiratory, cardiac and metabolic diseases (Brook and Rajagopalan, 2010, Burgan et al., 2010, Chiba and Abe, 2003, Pearce and Braverman, 2009 and Yang

and Omaye, 2009). In this context, in vivo experimental studies have helped to increase knowledge about the mechanisms of air pollutant toxicity. The actions of HQ on mechanisms related to mononuclear cell migration Trametinib order to the LPS-inflamed lung are described herein and seem to be dependent on MCP-1 secretion by resident lung cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of in vivo HQ toxicity Galeterone on MCP-1 production. According to McGregor (2007), there is limited evidence showing the toxic actions of HQ after in vivo exposure, which may have contributed to the inadequate classification of HQ as being non-carcinogenic to humans (group 3) by the International

Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Our research group used in vivo HQ exposure methods that do not impair haematopoiesis and do not induce DNA adduction in lung tissue, both known as HQ-toxicity biological end points. However, in vivo HQ-exposure mainly causes harmful actions during host defence ( Ferreira et al., 2006, Macedo et al., 2007 and Ribeiro et al., 2011). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) states that 2 mg/m3 (0.44 ppm) is the threshold limit value–threshold weighted average (TLV–TWA) for human HQ exposure (NIOSH, 1994). Based on this information and considering HQ toxicity in mice (Snyder, 2002, Snyder, 2004 and Snyder, 2007), the concentrations of HQ used in the current study were 10 times lower (25 ppm = 0.

APs can affect a number of reproductive

parameters in fis

APs can affect a number of reproductive

parameters in fish, including gonadal development (Meier et al., 2007b), induction of plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in male and juvenile fish Selleck Ku-0059436 (Jobling and Sumpter, 1993 and White et al., 1994), inhibition of spermatogenesis (Gimeno et al., 1998, Jobling and Sumpter, 1993, Miles-Richardson et al., 1999 and Weber et al., 2002), and oogenesis (Tanaka and Grizzle, 2002 and Weber et al., 2003). Tollefsen et al. (2007) and Tollefsen and Nilsen (2008) found that APs were able to bind to plasma sex steroid-binding proteins (rtSBP) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The highest affinity was seen for mono-substituted APs with 4–8 carbon chain length, but this was still 104–106 times lower than the affinity for the natural sex steroid 17β-estradiol (E2). The results suggested that endocrine disruption may occur after exposure to realistic concentrations of APs and a variety of other PW compounds. Tollefsen et al. (2006) further showed that chemicals in solid phase extracts of PW were able to displace E2 from the rtSBP and induce estrogenic effects. The bioactive chemicals were not identified. Tollefsen et al. (2011) demonstrated that complex mixtures

of oil-related compounds could modulate the endocrine physiology PF-562271 research buy of Atlantic cod. Fish were exposed to either diluted PW (0.5% and 0.1%), dispersed oil (0.2 mg L−1), or artificial PW water mixed with nine low to medium molecular weight APs and PAHs. The total sex-steroid binding capacity was up-regulated in the blood of female cod, indicating interference with blood steroid transport. Induction of plasma Vtg was not found, Etofibrate although the number of males and females with elevated Vtg was higher in certain exposure groups than in the control group. General health parameters such as gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic or fish condition index were not affected, which

suggests that the endocrine disrupting effect was too low to elicit clear physiological or growth effects. When exposing late larvae and juveniles of Atlantic cod to PW Meier et al. (2010) found that individuals exposed to 1% PW had significantly higher levels of Vtg and CYP1A in plasma and liver, respectively. No similar effects were seen at exposure to 0.1% and 0.01% PW. Serious reproductive disturbance was demonstrated by Meier et al. (2007b) in first-time spawning Atlantic cod that were force fed a paste containing C4–C7 APs. Total AP doses during 1 and 5 weeks were 0.02–80 mg kg−1 body weight. Treatment impaired oocyte development, reduced estrogen levels, and delayed spawning by 17–28 days in female fish.

These workshops have identified several hundred benthic and pelag

These workshops have identified several hundred benthic and pelagic candidate EBSAs, based largely on eliciting expert opinion for each area. Regional workshops have generally comprised one expert nominated from each country in the region, plus additional experts from Non-Governmental Organisations (e.g., Birdlife International). Observations by several of the current authors involved in this process were that the experts tend to emphasise the areas or features they know best. Without a structured method for data input and evaluation, future workshops may potentially miss locations that are under-sampled (such as those in remote and High Seas areas), and may also expose the EBSA

process to criticism PD-0332991 mw from stakeholders with competing objectives (e.g., resource use versus conservation), or those not involved in the selection, evaluation and submission process. Thus, we contend there is a need for a method that can be used across multiple regions to identify candidate EBSAs in a comparable and robust manner. The proposed method presented in this paper was developed for seamounts, but is likely to have broader applicability to identify candidate EBSAs for a wide range of benthic and pelagic systems.

The method we have developed is based on a logical sequence of actions. The identification and collation of information is followed by the creation of data layers PD0332991 chemical structure and the setting of thresholds for each criterion. The method uses a combined criteria approach to identify candidate EBSAs from a large number of sites that could potentially qualify for EBSA SPTBN5 status based on meeting one or a few of the criteria. It systematically structures the criteria and subsequent

analysis of relevant datasets to score the criteria. Data with potential to inform EBSA identification are selected first, as opposed to identifying areas and then using data to justify their selection. The method, importantly, allows the contribution of individual attributes (e.g., diversity, rarity, vulnerability) to be transparent. It also identifies the types of data considered, and highlights where major data sources are limited or lacking. The methodology, and especially the data sources that can be integrated, can be modified by regional knowledge on smaller spatial scales than considered here. It can also be nested within a regional or national process, as a globally consistent framework for identifying ecologically important sites. A habitat-by-habitat approach can be taken, whereby results from several habitats can be combined into a more comprehensive assessment of global EBSAs. The method, however, addresses solely the criteria for identifying candidate EBSAs, and is not designed to identify networks of protected areas on large ocean-basin scales (covered in Annex II of Decision IX/20).