In this work, we propose the use of electrical parameters, capaci

In this work, we propose the use of electrical parameters, capacitance and resistance of mangosteens, to determine the defect. The data are then analyzed employing logistic regression analysis to predict the probability for classification groups; in this case, those with and without translucent defect. The result from the logistic regression analysis reveals that the overall correctness of the prediction at 0.5 cut point is 87.3% which is competitive to those obtained by other means.”
“With a genome size of similar to 580 kb and approximately 480 protein coding regions, Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the smallest known self-replicating NSC 707544 organisms and, additionally,

has extremely fastidious nutrient requirements. The reduced genomic content of M. genitalium has led researchers to suggest that the molecular assembly contained in this organism may be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes required for bacterial growth. Here, we introduce a systematic approach for the construction and curation of a genome-scale in silico metabolic model for M. genitalium. Key challenges

included estimation of biomass composition, handling of enzymes with broad specificities, and the lack of a defined medium. Computational tools were subsequently employed to identify HTS assay and resolve connectivity gaps in the model as well as growth prediction inconsistencies with gene essentiality experimental data. The curated model, M. genitalium iPS189 (262 reactions, 274 metabolites), is 87% accurate in recapitulating in vivo gene essentiality results for M. genitalium. Approaches and tools described herein provide a roadmap for the automated construction of in silico metabolic models of other organisms.”
“cDNA fragments of lea3 genes with a high GC content (from

68 to 77%) were found in several Poaceae, including Sorghum vulgare, Saccharum officinarum, Oryza officinalis, Oryza meyeriana, Ampelocalamus calcareus, Cynodon dactylon, and Zizania latifoli. They were successfully isolated by means of optimal experimental parameters, which included dimethyl sulfoxide as additive and degenerate primers “”AGETKAS”" and “”AGKDKTG”", and their sequences were analyzed. Compared to the method BIX 01294 in vivo of isolating genes by screening of a cDNA library using abscisic acid- and other stress-responsive cDNA clones, which is time-consuming and costly, this method is relatively easy and inexpensive. Using this new method, many new homologue lea3 genes were rapidly determined.”
“A method to fabricate tubular nanoporous alumina layers by anodization of aluminum at current densities up to 1400 mA/cm(2) and anodization rates up to 70 mu m/min has been developed. It implies anodization in the meniscal region of the sample dipping into an electrolyte. The formed porous alumina has been found to be selforganized nanotube cells when the anodization current excides 100 mA/cm(2).

Abdominal ultrasonography did not detect any visceral lesions,

Abdominal ultrasonography did not detect any visceral lesions,

and brain magnetic resonance imaging did not detect any mass lesions. We decided to observe the course without treatment in this case because there are no internal masses of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Regular follow up has therefore been scheduled. To our knowledge, this is the third report of a case demonstrating juvenile xanthogranuloma with lichenoid appearance. Future analyses of various cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or tumor necrosis factor-a in juvenile xanthogranuloma lesions should be of great help in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease.”

Bodily pain and psychiatric distress are common symptoms in patients with dialysis. However, the temporal relationships have not yet see more been investigated.


To evaluate the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of developing severe bodily pain in dialysis patients.


Prospective cohort study.


We assessed bodily Rigosertib pain using a self-reported questionnaire and depressive symptoms using scores from the short version of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Index (CES-D) from 531 participants

showing no/mild bodily pain at baseline, based on the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, a cohort study of hemodialysis patients. To evaluate the relationship between depressive symptoms and development of severe bodily pain, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed.


The 531 patients had a mean age of 57.9 years, 61.4% were male, and 33.1% had depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis revealed that depressive symptoms at baseline were significantly associated with higher odds of developing severe bodily pain

during a 0.5- to 2.5-year follow-up period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-3.33, P = 0.001). Further, patients with higher CES-D scores were likely to develop severe bodily pain (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, P = 0.001).


Results MK-4827 nmr of this study suggest that depressive symptoms measured by CES-D predict the future risk of developing severe bodily pain in dialyis patients.”
“Objectives: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures.

Study Design and Setting: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys.

401 nm, which is affected

by hyperfine structure splittin

401 nm, which is affected

by hyperfine structure splitting caused by nuclear-spin coupling and by the Zeeman effect. If the Bromosporine solubility dmso external magnetic field is strong enough, the nuclear-spin IJ coupling breaks down, whereas the Zeeman splitting continues to be ruled by the JS coupling. The diode laser-based measurements show this departure from aluminum transition IJ coupling for magnetic fields higher than 0.1 T. In this case, the line profile is affected by Doppler broadening and a large Zeeman splitting (higher than Doppler FWHM) and it can be solved by tunable diode-laser induced fluorescence measurements. The theoretical Zeeman splitting ruled by the Rabusertib price JS coupling at high magnetic fields (0.1-0.4 T) was successfully verified while comparing the magnetic field, measured by Zeeman splitting and the Hall probe in the same elementary volume. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3579446]“
“Exposure of the central nervous system to organophosphorus

(OP) nerve agents causes seizures and neuronal cell death. Benzodiazepines are commonly used to treat seizures induced by OPs. However, it is known that soman-induced seizures are particularly resistant to benzodiazepine treatment, as compared with other OPs. This study investigated the effect of soman on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in acute rat hippocampal slices and the surface expression of GABA(A) receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Results showed that Epigenetics inhibitor GABA-mediated inhibitory post synaptic currents

(IPSCs) are significantly reduced by soman in a concentration-dependent manner in acute rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, confocal microscopic and cell-based ELISA assays revealed that soman caused rapid internalization of GABA(A) receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The effect of soman on GABA(A)R endocytosis was not due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) because (1) the acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine did not block soman-induced GABA(A)R endocytosis; and (2) physostigmine, at concentrations that completely inhibit AChE activity, did not cause GABA(A)R endocytosis. Moreover, blocking of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) had no effect on soman-induced GABA(A)R endocytosis, suggesting that the soman effect was not secondary to glutamate receptor over activation. Regardless of the exact mechanism, the observation that soman induces rapid GABA(A)R endocytosis may have significant implications in the development of effective countermeasures against soman-induced seizures.”
“We present theoretical results on steady state characteristics in bulk GaAs1-xNx alloys (x <= 0.2) using the single electron Monte-Carlo method.

Material and methods Between 1999 and 2007, 45 male patients wit

Material and methods. Between 1999 and 2007, 45 male patients with urinary bladder cancer were treated with cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution; 23 with the S-shaped bladder ad modum Schreiter and 22 with the U-shaped bladder ad modum Studer. Patients were followed up by a urologist and a specialized nurse (urotherapist) at 1, 3 and DAPT cell line 6 months. At each visit the patient completed a voiding chart,

a weighted pad test and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Differences between the groups in functional outcome and quality of life variables were analysed by Student’s t test using SPSS software. Results. Mean maximum bladder capacity increased over time. At 6 months, the S-bladder had a larger capacity than the U-bladder (525 ml vs 423 ml). Patients with an S-bladder had less urine leakage at all follow-ups,

although this was statistically significant only at 6 months regarding day-time incontinence and at all visits regarding night-time incontinence. The mean urine leakage at 6 months was 7 g (day) and 30 g (night) in the S-bladder group and 50 g (day) and 250 g (night) in the U-bladder group. However, quality of life did not differ between the groups. Conclusion. The S-bladder had better bladder capacity and less leakage than the U-bladder, but these differences did not translate into differences in quality of life. The results should be confirmed in larger prospective studies.”
“Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. In the majority of patients, CBL0137 mouse the disease will check details present at an early stage, without metastasis, and with an excellent prognosis. Although

the rate of metastasis in patients with early stage endometrial cancer is low, the standard of treatment still includes a complete or selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for staging. Many patients will undergo a comprehensive lymphadenectomy despite having disease confined to the uterus, resulting in detrimental side-effects, including lower extremity lymphedema. Recent studies, such as A Study in the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer’, have shown that there is no therapeutic benefit to a complete lymphadenectomy in early stage endometrial cancer, although further study is needed to confirm these findings. The use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in endometrial cancer may provide an appropriate middle ground between the two schools of thought of complete lymphadenectomy versus no nodal evaluation. SLN mapping, which is gaining ever-increasing acceptance in many cancer types, is based on the concept that lymph node metastasis is the result of an orderly process, that is, the lymph drains in a specific pattern away from the tumor, and therefore if the SLN, or first node, is negative for metastasis, then the nodes after the SLN should also be negative.

Multiple studies published over the past several years have highl

Multiple studies published over the past several years have highlighted complications associated with BMP in a variety of clinical fusion scenarios. There are no systematic reviews on this topic, and thus, the complication

profile of off-label use or physician directed use of BMP in spinal fusion surgery is not well characterized. Some of the reported complications are unique to BMP, which underscores the need for this thorough literature review.

Methods. A systematic review of the English language literature was performed for articles published between 1990 and June 2009. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify articles examining the use of BMP in spine surgery. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence using HM781-36B nmr the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus.

Results. Two hundred forty-two articles that assessed outcomes

after BMP use in spinal surgery were identified from the literature; of these, 31 articles were selected for inclusion. We determined that multiple complications are associated after the use of rhBMP-2 in both cervical and lumbar spine fusion surgery. There is a mean incidence of 44%, 25%, and 27% of resorption, subsidence, and interbody cage migration reported for lumbar spine interbody fusion surgery although reoperation or long-term detrimental effect was rare. Cervical studies

report a mean 5.8% of postoperative soft tissue problems, including dysphagia, when rhBMP-2 NU7441 is used for ventral cervical fusion. It was determined that the strength of evidence of the peer-reviewed literature that report on types of complications is high for the lumbar and low for the cervical spine, respectively, and that the current strength of evidence on rates of complications with BMP is moderate and low, respectively.

Conclusion. The complication profile of BMP-2 for ALIF with LT-CAGE is buy VS-6063 well characterized. Because of the lack of substantive data, the same is not true for other types of lumbar fusions, or for cervical or thoracic fusion applications. BMP has been associated with a variety of unique complications in the ventral cervical and lumbar spines. The published data on BMP fail to precisely profile this product’s use in fusion surgery; hence, it should be used only after a careful consideration of the relevant data. Well-designed and executed studies are necessary to completely define the incidence of various complications relative to type of BMP, type and region of fusion, surgical technique, dose, and carrier, and importantly, to define the natural history and management of associated complications.”
“Hydrogels were synthesized from poultry feather protein by crosslinking ethylene diamine tetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD)-modified feather protein isolate (FPI) with glutaraldehyde (Glu).

Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients with liver cirrh

Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients with liver cirrhosis who contracted PHI and were treated at our institution between January 1990 and December 2004.

Results: Of 349 first-time episodes this website of PHI during the study period, 33 (9.5%) occurred in patients with liver cirrhosis. Debridement with retention of the prosthesis (DWROP) was the initial treatment modality for 24 (73%) episodes of PHI and cured the infection in seven (29%). A shorter median duration of symptoms (5 vs. 14 days; p = 0.007) and absence of a sinus tract (p = 0.02) were associated

with successful treatment. Excision arthroplasty (EA) was required in 26 (79%) episodes and eradicated PHI in 24 (92%). In 20 patients who had reimplantation of a new prosthesis, the infection recurred in six (30%). Patients who developed hepatic decompensation after reimplantation had a significantly higher risk of recurrent PHI than those who did not (relative risk 7.5; 95% confidence interval 4.8-9.5; p = 0.018).

Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis is a common co-morbidity in patients with PHI treated at our institution. DWROP should be considered only when there is no sinus tract and the duration of symptoms is very short (less than 10 days). EA is PI3K inhibitor an effective procedure to cure infection. However, reimplantation of hip prosthesis in these patients carries a high risk

of infection recurrence, especially in those who develop hepatic decompensation. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To directly compare the sensitivity of 64- section multidetector computed tomography (CT) with that of 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the depiction and measurement of

heterogeneous 7-8-week-old microinfarcts and the quantification of regional left ventricular (LV) function and perfusion in the territory of PARP phosphorylation coronary intervention in a swine model.

Materials and Methods: Approval was obtained from the institutional animal committee. An x-ray/MR system was used to catheterize the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery with x-ray guidance and to delineate the perfusion territory. The vessel was selectively microembolized in six pigs with small-diameter embolic material (40-120 mu m, 250 000 count). At 7-8 weeks after microembolization, multidetector CT and MR imaging were used to assess LV function, first-pass perfusion, and delayed contrast enhancement in remote myocardium and microinfarct scars. Histochemical staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used to confirm and quantify heterogeneous microinfarct scars. The two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to detect differences between modalities and myocardial regions.

Results: The LAD territory was 32.4% +/- 3.8 (stadard error of the mean) of the LV mass.

29, 95% confidence interval 0 26-0 32) compared with women who se

29, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.32) compared with women who selected a non-LARC method.

CONCLUSION: Intrauterine devices and the implant have the highest rates of continuation at 24 months. Given their effectiveness and high continuation rates, IUDs and implants should be first-line contraceptive options and shorter-acting methods such as OCPs, patch, ring, and DMPA should be second tier.”
“Endocrine disruptors, especially estrogenic

substances, Selleck Adavosertib are thought to affect the reproduction and development of animals, including humans. We therefore assessed whether bisphenol A (BPA) or estrone (E1) had any adverse effects on chick embryogenesis. Fertilized eggs of white Leghorns were obtained within 24 buy Combretastatin A4 h after laying. Embryos were administered 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mM BPA, and administered 10, 100 nM, and 1 mu M E1, and incubated for 48 h at 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C and >80% relative humidity with one rotation per hour. The embryos were excised, fixed in 70% ethanol and viewed under a stereomicroscope. Their morphological abnormalities and numbers of somites were recorded.

There were no significant difference in the average number of somites in embryos administered BPA and controls. Abnormal embryogenesis, however, showed dose-related increases caused by BPA and E1. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of domoic acid (DA) a potent neurotoxin, HSP990 purchase responsible for the syndrome amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) contamination of various species of bivalve shellfish purchased from fish market in Korea and the implications for food safety. Liquid chromatography (LC) methods were applied to quantify DA in shellfish after sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges. Toxin detection was achieved using photodiode array ultraviolet (LC-UV) and electrospray ionization-mass (LC-ESI-MS). DA was identified in 4 bivalve shellfishes of 872 shellfishes collected from March, 2006 to October, 2007 in Korea. DA amount of 3 surf clams (Mactra veneriformis) collected at Seoul, Daejeon, and Daegu were 4.13, 1.99, and 1.94 mg/kg, respectively. DA amount

of I pink butterfly shell (Peronidia venulosa) collected at Seoul was 3.02 mg DA/kg. The amounts of DA that were present in 4 bivalve shellfishes were within EU guideline limits for sale of shellfish (20 mg DA/kg).”
“OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a multicenter survey to assess faculty satisfaction, engagement, and retention. This subanalysis describes the perceptions of academic obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns).

METHOD: Fourteen U. S. institutions offered voluntary faculty survey participation. We analyzed demographic information and responses to items within the 10 work-related dimensions. This analysis used pooled cohort data for 329 ob-gyn respondents across institutions.

RESULTS: The mean response rate was 61.

All rights reserved “
“Catechins (flavan-3-oils)


All rights reserved.”
“Catechins (flavan-3-oils)

are the main flavonoids present in green tea. The potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of green tea catechins have been the focus of research efforts in the last two decades. This systematic review aims to generate in vitro and in vivo data on the effect of green tea catechins on breast carcinogenesis. Electronic databases were searched with the appropriate search terms. Existing evidence suggests that green tea catechins modulate breast cell carcinogenesis. The effect of green tea catechins on breast cell carcinogenesis has been investigated in different experimental models and under different experimental conditions, that is, carcinogen investigated, green tea catechin dosage regimen, treatment with green tea extract versus pure synthetic EGCG, and time point of treatment with green tea catechins in relation to the exposure to the carcinogen. Apoptosis inhibitor Although the effect of green tea catechins was not always statistically significant, the protective effect of green tea catechins was demonstrated in all the trials, suggesting that treatment with green tea

catechins should be further investigated in the clinical setting of chemoprevention of high-risk women. However, it should be emphasized that the reported actions of green tea catechins are observed in high concentrations that are difficult to achieve in the clinical setting. This drawback could be overcome by designing green tea catechins Z-IETD-FMK order with better bioavailability and/or by cotreatment combining breast cancer endocrine treatment with green tea catechins. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams

& Wilkins.”
“Among various infectious agents possibly involved in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), Escherichia Coli (E. coli) has received special attention because of epidemiological and experimental evidence linking this bacterium with the disease’s development. This review discusses early and more recent epidemiological studies associating recurrent urinary tract infections with E. coli and the development of PBC. We also critically review data provided over the years demonstrating Selleckchem EPZ004777 disease-specific humoral and cellular immune responses against E. coli antigens in patients with PBC. Finally, we assess the relevance of experimental findings reporting cross-reactive immunity between mimicking sequences of E. coli and the major PBC mitochondrial antigens in the pathogenesis of the PBC. We also address the extent to which molecular mimicry and immunological cross-reactivity can be considered as a critical pathogenic process linking infection with self destruction.”
“Objective: This study was performed to investigate frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of pulmonary pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

Methods: 129 pediatric patients with CF were enrolled in this cross-sectional study.

Based on these data, recommendations for clinical practice in Swi

Based on these data, recommendations for clinical practice in Switzerland are made by a panel of experts.”
“While it is generally accepted that honeybees (Apis mellifera) are capable of using the pattern of polarized light in the sky to navigate to a food

source, there is little or no direct behavioural evidence that they actually do so. We have examined whether bees can be trained to find their way through a maze composed of four interconnected tunnels, by using directional information provided by polarized light illumination from the ceilings of Selleck KU 57788 the tunnels. The results show that bees can learn this task, thus demonstrating directly, and for the first time, that bees are indeed capable of using the polarized-light information in the sky as a compass to steer their way to a food source.”
“Presence of high fever may cause confusion in differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) versus pneumonia. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in differential diagnosis of PE and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 24 patients with proven PE and 22 patients with LDK378 nmr CAP were included in the study. The study population was subdivided as PE patients with fever (group 1, n = 8) and without fever (group 2, n = 16); and CAP (group 3,

n = 22). Serum PCT and systemic inflammatory markers were measured at the initial diagnosis and the third day of the treatment. The relation of PCT level with the other systemic inflammatory markers was investigated in each measurement point. The initial mean serum PCT level in group 3 (2.24 +/- 0.99 ng/mL) was statistically higher than group 1 (0.48 +/- 0.77

ng/mL) and group 2 (0.14 +/- 0.17 ng/mL; P = .000,.000, respectively). Procalcitonin level at the initial (2.24 +/- 0.99 ng/mL) and the third day of treatment (0.92 +/- 0.62 ng/mL) in group 3 showed a statistically ABT-263 research buy significant reduction (P = .000). There were no statistically significant reduction in PCT levels by anticoagulation in groups 1 and 2 (P = .262, .119, respectively). Other systemic inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels statistically significantly decreased with anticoagulant and antimicrobial therapy. This study suggested that serum PCT level may be valuable for differentiating PE patients with or without fever from patients with CAP.”
“The objective of this work is two-fold: to determine the role of MRI findings in establishing the prognosis of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to our centre, measured with different outcome scales; and to determine in which patients the information given by MR findings adds prognostic information to that from traditional prognostic factors.

Overexpression/downregulation of O tauriLOV-HK alters CCA1 rhyth

Overexpression/downregulation of O. tauriLOV-HK alters CCA1 rhythmicity under constant red light, irrespective of LOV-HK’s photochemical reactivity, suggesting that O. tauri LOV-HK also participates in regulation of the circadian selleck clock independent of its blue-light-sensing property. Molecular characterization of O. tauri LOV-HK demonstrates that this type of photoreceptor family is not limited to prokaryotes.”
“Fracture of anterior teeth is

a relatively common outcome of trauma to the teeth. If the fractured teeth fragments are recovered by the patient and brought to the dental office within reasonable time, the fragments may be reattached to the tooth structure. This article SHP099 research buy presents a case of a 20-year-old man with fractured maxillary central incisors and left maxillary lateral incisor. The fracture involved two-thirds

of the crown, compromising the pulp. The procedure used was reattachment of the fractured fragment with bonding system and dual-cure composite resin cement. The techniques described in this case report for reattachment of the fractured fragments are reasonably simple, while restoring providing long- lasting esthetics, improved function, positive psychologic response with a very conservative approach. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e70-e74)”
“Methods: A sample of 413 patients were studied. Groups included 158 with an advisory Medtronic 6949 and 255 with an ICD that had no current advisories. Patients were administered a validated disease-specific metric assessing concerns over ICDs, as well as a demographics questionnaire. The primary outcome was the total score on the ICD concerns (ICDC). Analysis was with one-way Analysis of Variance with preplanned orthogonal contrasts and multivariate regression.

Results: WZB117 nmr The advisory group tended to have higher numbers of high school and college graduates. The average length of device implant in the nonadvisory group was higher at 4.29 years versus 3.99 years in the advisory group (t = 0.901, P < 0.5). A higher percentage of those with an advisory experienced more shocks (39%

vs 32%; z = -1.51, P < 0.5). Average ICDC scores in the advisory group with previous shock were significantly higher than in the nonadvisory group with prior shock ([27.7 standard deviation (SD) +/- 14.5] vs [18.5 SD +/- 12.5], P = 0.0001). Average ICDC score in the advisory group without shock was also significantly elevated compared to the nonadvisory group (18.5 SD +/- 14.5 vs 10.8, SD +/- 12.5, P = 0.0001). There was a significant effect of having an advisory on total ICDC scores (F = 21.32, P < 0.0001). History of shock also significantly increased total ICDC scores (F = 20.07, P < 0.0001). In multivariate regression, presence of Fidelis lead and history of shock were predictors for increased ICDC scores (R2 = 0.158, F = 38.88, P = 0.0001).