, 2009) However, this successful use of NIR spectroscopy was res

, 2009). However, this successful use of NIR spectroscopy was restricted to fruits with homogeneous pulp and thin skin. Guthrie, Liebenberg, and Walsh (2006) obtained unsatisfactory results for melon fruit, similarly Guthrie and Walsh (1997) were not able to predict soluble solids content in pineapple. Lammertyn, Peirs, Baerdemaeker, and Nicolai (2000) pointed out that penetration of NIR radiation into fruit tissue is limited. For example, in apple, the penetration depth is up to 4 mm in the 700–900 nm range and between 2 and 3 mm in the 900–1900 nm range. In fact, in a later study, Nicolai and co-workers (2007) concluded that depending on

the uniformity of the fruit, the determination of quality attributes is difficult. To our knowledge, no

Neratinib in vivo attempt has been made to compare the efficiency of NIR, with the same methodology, for structurally different fruits. Thus, we describe in this paper the use of near-infrared spectroscopy, as a non-destructive method, to predict quality traits, more specifically, soluble solids and titratable acidity, in three structurally different intact fruits: passion fruit (thick skin), tomato (heterogeneous internal structure) and apricot (homogeneous pulp and thin skin). A total of 61 yellow passion fruits (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa), selleck screening library in two different ripening stages (green–yellow and yellow) were harvested in 2011 in southern Brazil. For tomato, a total of 150 fruits of cultivar ‘Levovil’, in five different ripening stages (green, green–orange, orange–green, orange, red) were harvested

in 2008 from an experimental greenhouse of INRA (Institut de la Recherche Agronomique) located in Southern France. 116 apricot fruits from three cultivars, named ‘Bergeron’, ‘Iranien’ and ‘A4034’ were harvested at two different stages of ripening: yellow (unripe) and orange (ripe) in INRA experimental orchards (Amarine and Gotheron), in South of France, in 2010. Non-destructive measurements were performed on the day of picking for each fruit and conventional, destructive, measurements were carried out a few days later on frozen materials. Spectra were collected for all samples in reflectance mode 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl (log 1R−1) using a multi-purpose analyser (MPA) spectrometer (Bruker Optics). The instrument was equipped with an integrating sphere to provide diffuse reflectance measurements and a TE-InGaAs detector. The MPA was fully software-controlled (OPUS software Version 5.0, Bruker Optics). The NIR spectrum for each sample was obtained from an average of 32 scans. NIR spectra were acquired between 800 and 2700 nm at 2 nm spectral resolution, with a scanner velocity of 10 kHz and a background of 32 scans. The time required to achieve a spectral measurement was 30 s. Intact tomato and apricot fruits were placed on an automated 30-position sample wheel, each position corresponding to an 18 mm diameter hole.

The column oven temperature programs were 40 °C (4 min), 5 °C min

The column oven temperature programs were 40 °C (4 min), 5 °C min−1 to 80 °C, 20 °C min−1 to 180 °C, and splitless mode was used. The analytical column was an Rtx-5MS. Carrier gas was helium at 1 mL min−1. The mass acquisition range was 35–400 m/z. The peaks were identified on the basis of their fragmentation patterns using the NIST Mass Spectral Search Program 05 (NIST, Washington, DC). The soft drinks were collected from supermarkets in Florianópolis (SC, Brazil). In this study several brands of soft drinks, flavours and types of packaging (PET and glass bottles, and cans) were taken into consideration. All samples were stored at 0 °C. SPME extraction was performed with carboxen–polidimetilsiloxano

(CAR–PDMS) Selleck GSK1349572 fibre. The fibre was conditioned at 300 °C for 1 h prior to use. Blank desorptions were periodically carried out. Samples (20 mL) were transferred into vials (40 mL, Supelco) which contained 20% (w/v) sodium chloride salt, 150 μL sodium hydroxide 6 mol L−1. Internal standard at 50 and 25 μg L−1 of, respectively,

INCB024360 cell line dichloromethane and diiodomethane were used. The incubation and extraction temperature was 30 °C. The samples were equilibrated for 8 min before the extraction step. The speed of the magnetic stirring was 1000 rpm. The fibre was immersed in the headspace of the sample for 15 min, immediately drawn back into the needle and transferred without delay (less than 5 s) into the injection port of the GC. A desorption time of 3 min at 280 °C was used in this study. All analysis was performed in triplicate. When a soft drink bottle is opened, the pressure is reduced to the atmospheric pressure, causing decomposition of the carbonic acid releasing CO2. To avoid this

problem, the addition of NaOH to the sample can significantly reduce the carbonic acid concentration Isotretinoin due to the formation of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3. The effect of CO2 on the extraction of THMs from soft drink was studied comparing the extraction efficiency of adding or not adding 150 μL of NaOH 6 mol L−1 to a 20 mL soft drink sample. CAR–PDMS fibre, extraction time of 10 min, extraction temperature at 20 °C and stirring magnetic speed of 500 rpm were used in this study. As can be seen from Fig. 1, the best extraction efficiency occurs with addition of NaOH 6 mol L−1, except for chloroform which is the more volatile of the target analytes. The improvement of the extraction efficiency for the other THMs was up to 35%. The analytes are released from the aqueous phase to the gas phase when the pressure in the headspace is closed to atmospheric pressure. In the case of the soft drink samples, the transfer of the analytes between the two phases occurs easily when the CO2 is not present at high levels in the small headspace volume. The appropriate choice of fibre is essential to the establishment of a sensitive method in SPME, and it is dependent on the chemical nature of compounds of interest (Cancho, Ventura, & Galceran, 2001).

The authors thank R Rosenberg for clerical assistance with the m

The authors thank R. Rosenberg for clerical assistance with the manuscript. “
“The authors regret that an error appeared in Section 4.2.1 of the above-mentioned article. The authors would like to apologize to the readers of the article for any inconvenience caused due to this error. The correction follows here: 4.2.1. Effect of pH In this section, the line “At low pH values, there exists a strong electronegative repulsion between the positively charged dye ions and the negatively charged biosorbent surface due to the protonation of the surface functional groups resulting in low dye removal efficiency” should be read as “At low pH values, there exists a strong

electrostatic repulsion selleck screening library between the positively charged dye ions and the positively charged biosorbent surface due to protonation of the surface functional groups resulting in low dye removal efficiency”. “

author would like to bring to your attention that there are a couple of places of incomplete or incorrect citing of sources of references in the paper, and these are listed below: Page 191 • “Collagen is widespread in nature and plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs. The ease of preparation has made it the most widely used biomaterial [1]. The above should be written as “Collagen is widespread in nature and performs a vital role www.selleckchem.com/products/Docetaxel(Taxotere).html in the tissues and organ formation [1]. The ease of preparation has made it the most widely used biomaterial.” • “Scaffolds made of collagen are distinct from those of synthetic polymers

mainly in its mode of interaction in the body [4]. Collagen is a good surface-active agent and its ability to penetrate a lipid-free interface has been demonstrated [5]. Compared with other natural polymers such as, albumin and gelatin, collagen exhibits superior biodegradability, biocompatibility and weak antigenecity [1, 6, 7]. In addition to the above mentioned advantages, collagen is non-toxic and has a good safety profile as a scaffold in the biomedical BCKDHA application such as tissue regeneration. The above should be written as “Scaffolds made of collagen differ from that of synthetic polymers in the manner they interact within the host body [4]. Collagen (M.W. 50,000) behaves as surface-active agent and is permeable through interfaces devoid of lipids [5]. In comparison to some of the existing natural polymers namely albumin and gelatin, collagen shows better biodegradability, biocompatibility and also reduced antigenecity [1, 6, 7]. In addition to the above mentioned advantages, collagen is non-toxic and has safety profile suitable enough to be used as a scaffold in the biomedical application such as tissue regeneration [7].” • “In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention and have been widely used in biomedical research. Synthesis of AgNPs has been of considerable interest during the past few decades as they exhibit better antimicrobial activity compared to metallic silver.

This was initially interpreted as the rate of N accumulation with

This was initially interpreted as the rate of N accumulation within the system was related to the productivity of the stand. Forest floor mass and N content theoretically increase from some point of inception of disturbance (establishment or fire) until steady state is reached, where detritus inputs are matched by the cumulative losses of the organic matter fractions (Olsen, 1963). Miller (1981) selleck chemicals and Turner (1981) point out that N accumulation in temperate or boreal forest floors may drive stands into N deficiency.

In young or developing stands, the forest floor should be accumulating N whereas forest floor N should be relatively stable in undisturbed mature forests. The question in young stands is whether this N accumulation is measurably at the expense of the soil pool or do we have other inputs? One of the most famous studies of soil change is the Rothamsted long-term plots in the UK. These plots were first sampled in 1882 and 1883, and again in the mid 1960s (Jenkinson, 1970). Two small plots were allowed to revert from agriculture back to “wilderness” (trees selleck screening library – I cannot see that the species were given). In one case (Broadbalk), increments in the soil averaged 55 kg ha−1 yr−1 and in the other (Geescroft) 15 kg ha−1 yr−1. The latter rate of accumulation is not so large as to be inexplicable given the probable rates of atmospheric

input, but the former is inexplicably large. As noted by Binkley et al. (2000), these plots are small with large potential edge effects which may have facilitated higher than normal inputs of dry deposition from neighboring fertilized and manured fields. Johnson (1995) reported on changes in forest floor and mineral soil N content in soils under three

vegetation-elevation types (spruce-fir, high hardwood, and low hardwood were they mature?) Phospholipase D1 over an 8-year period following clearcut harvesting in Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, USA. They found forest floor changes of −30, −29 and −28 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in the forest floors of the spruce-fir, high hardwood, and low hardwood types, respectively, and soil changes of +95, −48, and −88 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. None of these changes were statistically significant. Vegetation increments were not reported. Morrison and Foster (2001) reported on the changes in mass and nutrient contents of forest floors in the Turkey Lakes Watershed, Ontario, Canada. They found that total organic matter and nutrient contents remained unchanged with the exception of N, which increased by 17.1 kmol ha−1 over the 15-year sampling period, or 16 kg ha−1 yr−1 on average (Table 2). They attribute this increase to uptake and redistribution from the mineral soil, which apparently was unique to N in this case. Kiser et al. (2009) report on soil N changes in an oak-pine watershed system at Camp Branch, Tennessee in the top 10 cm of soil.

We defined forests across our study area as those described as a

We defined forests across our study area as those described as a “forest” or “forest and woodland” land cover class in the biophysical setting model. National Forest System lands are typically considered “forest” if they have >10% tree canopy cover, and this generally coincides with forest, and forest and woodland land cover classes

(USDA Forest Service, 2004). Each biophysical setting model is composed of a suite of 3–5 successional/structural stages (s-classes). These classes typically include: (A) Early Development, (B) Mid-Development Closed Canopy, (C) Mid-Development Open Canopy, (D) Late Development Open Canopy, and (E) Late Development Closed Canopy. The definition of SRT1720 datasheet each s-class in terms of species composition, stand structure, and stand age is unique for each biophysical setting (Appendix A.2). The percentage of a biophysical setting in each s-class will differ depending on disturbance frequencies and/or intensities. The LANDFIRE and FRCC conceptual framework assumes that, given natural processes, a biophysical setting will have a characteristic range of variation in the proportion in each s-class and that an effective indicator of “ecological condition” for a given landscape is the relative abundance of each s-class within biophysical settings (Barrett et al., 2010 and Keane Afatinib et al., 2011). NRV reference models describe how

the relative distribution of s-classes for a biophysical setting were shaped by succession and the frequency and severity of disturbances prior to European settlement and provide a comparison to present-day forest conditions (Keane et al., 2009 and Landres et al., 1999). LANDFIRE biophysical setting models are used to develop NRV estimates through the use of state-and-transition

models incorporating pre-European settlement rates of succession and disturbance. Rates were determined through an intensive Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease literature and expert review process (Keane et al., 2002, Keane et al., 2007, Pratt et al., 2006 and Rollins, 2009). The distribution of s-classes for each biophysical setting which results from running state-and-transition models for many time-steps (Appendix A.3) does not represent a specific historical date, but instead approximates characteristic conditions that result from natural biological and physical processes operating on a landscape over a relatively long time period. NRV is frequently represented by a single value, the mean relative abundance of each s-class from a collection of Monte Carlo state-and-transition model simulations (e.g., Low et al., 2010, Shlisky et al., 2005 and Weisz et al., 2009). However, we extended this method by developing and using ranges for each s-class resulting from the stochastic variation around the mean within the state-and-transition models.

The degree to which PMT components can be effectively delivered i

The degree to which PMT components can be effectively delivered in integrated care settings for primary care pediatric patients who present with existing externalizing problems remains in question. Research by Axelrad et al. (2008) conducted in a behavioral outpatient clinic affiliated with a children’s hospital provides the closest evaluation of integrated-like PMT in the published literature to date. In this clinic, predoctoral psychology interns and pediatric medical residents provided brief treatment to children with externalizing

behavior problems. Most referrals were from children’s primary care physician. Sessions typically lasted 30 minutes and the number of sessions typically ranged between 2 and 18. Axelrad et al. conducted an exploratory analysis CAL-101 of their clinic by randomly sampling 550 patients, 276 of whom attended two or more sessions. Of these 276 children, 80% (a) presented for externalizing behavioral concerns and (b) were www.selleckchem.com/products/dabrafenib-gsk2118436.html provided interventions utilizing behavioral principles from empirically supported treatments for disruptive behaviors.

Information on treatment effectiveness was gathered from patient charts, specifically from student clinician’s session notes. According to archival data, 56% of children with an externalizing behavior problem who attended two or more appointments showed improvements, as indicated by therapist discontinuation of services due to amelioration of an initial presenting concern or premature termination of services with significant symptom reduction noted by the clinician. This study is encouraging in that there is preliminary support that behavioral problems can be successfully treated in a brief format in clinic settings. However, this study used qualitative information provided in patients’ charts to determine treatment effectiveness and did not have supporting quantitative data. A recent trend in the field is to adapt parenting interventions Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK in an effort to reach a larger and more diverse set of parents, especially those unlikely to access services in a specialty mental health clinic. One

such strategy involves culturally adapted protocols created from input provided by key population stakeholders (e.g., Dumas, Arriaga, Begle, & Longoria, 2011). Dumas and colleagues (2011) developed a Spanish-language PMT program for delivery in preschools and daycare settings that had integrated mental health services. Another approach for adapting and extending the reach of parenting interventions is the Family Check-Up, which is conducted primarily in the homes of disadvantaged families of young children at risk for conduct problems (Dishion et al., 2008). The Family Check-Up involves an extensive assessment, followed by feedback that combines motivational interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2002) and a menu of services for enhancing parents’ child management strategies.

97 to log101 46 copies/ml,

respectively, reflecting the m

97 to log101.46 copies/ml,

respectively, reflecting the more efficient delivery of TAF to target cells and tissues. Clearly the lower dose of TAF (25 mg) relative to TDF (300 mg) will give TAF a marked advantage when considering combination pill therapy. Understanding how marked a difference a prodrug can make from the TAF example, Adrian went on to describe how a prodrug approach transformed a new nucleotide project in which intrinsic properties of the pharmacologically-active nucleotide analog were optimized. Their starting point was GS-2128 (D4APi), which had good activity against both wild-type and resistant HIV strains but was an active inhibitor of mitochondrial polymerase-gamma. On comparing the known structures of HIV RT and mitochondrial Ibrutinib polymerase-gamma, differences in the 2′-binding pocket were noted. This led to GS-9148 in which 2′-F was added to GS-2128 (Fig. 8). Compared to TFV, GS-9148 was about 3-fold less active against wild-type HIV but maintained better activity against resistant strains (K65R and multiple thymidine analog resistance mutations). Most importantly, it was inactive (IC50>300 μM) against

mitochondrial polymerase gamma. More than 50 prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated in metabolism studies and in dogs (intravenous and oral administration). Alectinib Then the enantiomers were tested separately in dogs. This led to the selection of GS-9131. Whereas TFV is efficiently utilised by renal uptake transporters, GS-9148 was poorly taken into the kidney. No adverse renal findings were observed with the prodrug (GS-9131) in 28-day studies in rats, dogs and monkeys at the highest doses tested (300 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg/kg daily, respectively). In summary, this work has given examples of the prodrug approach being used successfully both to increase selectivity (by loading on-target tissues vs off-target

tissues) and to increase activity (via by-passing metabolic constraints). Adrian presented cases in which a prodrug strategy was able to fulfil the full potential of a selective, active triphosphate analog and enable its further progression as a clinical candidate. The keynote speakers were David Margolis and Myron Cohen (Fig. 9). David Margolis, heptaminol University of North Carolina, NC, USA In HIV-infected patients, there is a long-lasting reservoir of HIV in the form of integrated viral DNA in resting CD4+ memory cells of the host immune system. Therefore, even if it were possible to eliminate 100% of viral replication, a reservoir of HIV would remain. There may be reservoirs in other long-lived cells. To date, there is only one known HIV patient who has been cured of his infection, the “Berlin Patient”. He was treated for cancer by chemotherapy followed by a bone-marrow transplant. Being CCR5 +/−, the chemotherapy had a greater chance to remove all the CCR5+ve cells. The bone marrow donor was CCR5−ve.

3A and 4A and B, respectively Two classes of genes, the early (E

3A and 4A and B, respectively. Two classes of genes, the early (E) genes (which

are required for viral DNA replication) and late (L) genes (coding for the structural proteins) exist in both PyVs and PVs. The HPV genome contains a coding region that encompasses an E region that includes up to seven ORFs encoding non-structural proteins and the late region comprises the L1 and L2 ORFs. In HPV, a ∼1 kbp non-coding region [also known as the long control region (LCR) or the upstream regulatory PD-0332991 nmr region] separates the early and late regions. The LCR harbours the origin of replication, the transcription start sites and promoter/enhancer elements that regulate viral gene expression. In PyV, both strands of DNA code for the viral proteins. One strand of DNA encodes an overlapping set of multifunctional early regulatory proteins and the other strand encode for the capsid proteins expressed late in permissive cells. Some PyVs also encode for an agno protein that facilitates virion assembly. The control region between the early and the late transcription units contains a bidirectional enhancer, early and late promoters, the viral origin of replication, the viral packaging LY294002 mw signal and binding sites for host transcription factors Table 3. Papillomavirus particles are ∼55 nm diameter, compared to ∼45 nm diameter in PyVs. Papillomaviruses encode two structural proteins: the major capsid protein, L1 (∼510 amino acids

and ∼58 kDa), and the minor protein L2 (∼470 amino acids and ∼51 kDa). In contrast, PyVs encode for three structural proteins: the major capsid protein, VP1 (∼370 amino acids and ∼41 kDa) and two minor proteins VP2 for (∼350 amino acids and ∼38 kDa) and VP3 (∼230 amino acids and ∼26 kDa). Despite significant differences in amino acid sequences of the major capsid

proteins, both PV and PyV capsids exhibit conserved features, as the 72 capsomers are pentamers of the major capsid protein and are arranged on a T = 7 icosahedral lattice. Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae differ in capsomer morphology and size. Papillomavirus capsomers are star-shaped, 11–12 nm in diameter, while polyomavirus are barrel-shaped, 8 nm in diameter. Intercapsomer interactions are also slightly different between these viral families (Belnap et al., 1996). The carboxyl terminus of VP1 or L1 mediates contacts between the pentamers in the capsid. While disulphite bonds stabilize the interpentamer contacts for L1, both disulphite bonds and calcium bridges stabilize these contacts for VP1 (Sapp and Day, 2009). Also, differences in receptor binding and internalization pathway also exist between PVs and PyVs, reviewed in (Sapp and Day, 2009). Polyomaviruses generally have a narrow host range and limited cell type tropism (Gjoerup and Chang, 2010). In their natural host, they are able to infect cells giving rise to a productive life cycle causing cell lysis.

Our results also

showed that REKRG not only stimulates eN

Our results also

showed that REKRG not only stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production but also decreases VCAM-1 and COX-2 expression. These findings suggest an important role for Rg3-enriched ginseng extract in vascular protection. In conclusion, this study showed that the stimulatory effect of REKRG administration on vascular endothelial NO production through phosphorylation of eNOS is likely to have relevance for not only inhibition of VCAM-1 and COX-2 expression but also decreased aortic intima-media thickness, which improves cardiovascular function and prevents atherosclerosis. selleck All authors declare no conflicts of interest. This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the

Korean Government (MEST; no. 2011-0023858). The English in this document has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English. For a certificate, please see: http://www.textcheck.com/certificate/H2CZjI. “
“Unlike other ginsenosides with various pharmacological activities (e.g., ginsenoside Rg3) [1] and [2], ginsenoside Rp1 (G-Rp1) is a ginseng saponin Selleckchem LY294002 artificially prepared from crude ginsenosides (e.g., G-Rg5 and G-Rk1) obtained from Panax ginseng Meyer by reduction and hydrogenation [3]. The phytochemical features of G-Rp1 include its chemical stability, and various pharmacological approaches have suggested its value as a biologically

active ginsenoside. It has been reported that G-Rp1 is able to prevent skin papillomagenesis induced by 7,12-dimehtylbenz(a) anthracene [4], suppress the proliferation and metastatic processes of cancer cells [5], and reverse multidrug resistance in tumor cells [6]. In addition, G-Rp1 has also been found to block interleukin-1 production and diminish platelet activation and thrombus formation [7] and [8]. It has also been revealed that G-Rp1 blocks pathways linked to multidrug resistance gene-1 (MRD-1), Src, Akt, and I-kappaB kinase (IKK) in apoptotic and inflammatory processes [6], [9] and [10]. Although these experiments have explored the potential mechanisms underlying the Fossariinae anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of G-Rp1, the proteins responsible for these pharmacological actions remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used proteomic analysis to investigate the effect of G-Rp1 on the protein profiles and expression levels in several cancer cells to understand the mechanisms underlying its anticancer activity. G-Rp1 (Fig. 1) of 97% purity dissolved in 100% dimethylsulfoxide was prepared using established protocols [3]. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Polyvinylidenedifluoride membrane was purchased from Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (Hercules, CA, USA).

Elvin (1993) has estimated that Chinese population stood at 50 mi

Elvin (1993) has estimated that Chinese population stood at 50 million by AD 1100, 200 million by the early 1700s, and 400 million by 1850. Today China’s population exceeds 1 billion. Throughout this time range, continuous effort has been devoted to landscape drainage, reclamation, and the repair

of hydraulic infrastructure. The vast floodplains of the middle and lower Yellow and U0126 Yangzi Rivers were beginning to be canalized and farmed during the Shang/Zhou and Qin/Han periods (Keightley, 2000). During Song times (AD 960–1279) there was massive reclamation of coastal salt marshes around the mouth of the Yangzi and Hangzhou Bay to its south, to so vast an extent that Elvin (1993) could characterize a diked polder-land in the area as “in many ways comparable to Holland.” He estimates the area as roughly 40,000 km2, roughly the same as that of The Netherlands, and considerably more if the area also protected by a seawall north of the Yangzi is included (Elvin, 2004). The duration, scope, and scale of anthropogenic landscape formation in China greatly exceeds that seen anywhere else in East Asia, selleck compound but at smaller scales and lesser levels

of intensity it was nevertheless of transformative importance in later Korea and Japan as well. China’s neighbors to the north and east were early engaged in diversified hunting-collecting practices and plant husbandry that led them gradually into Casein kinase 1 intensive cultivation and the growth of increasingly populous and complex communities. In Northeast China, Korea, Japan, and the Russian Far East, substantial communities roughly coeval with the Middle Neolithic settlements of China’s Yellow River zone (8000–5000 cal BP) organized themselves for mass harvesting within the productive mosaic of

temperate mountain-forest-river and bay-shore settings that prevailed across a vast region. Earliest was the intensive harvest collecting of nuts, fish, and other marine products and the tending of indigenous grasses within the near compass of stable settlements. By about 5500 cal BP, prosperous communities in Korea were mobilizing for increased economic production that came to include millet cultivation and subsequently labor-intensive rice cultivation and also Southwest Asian crops such as wheat and barley by 3500 BP (Crawford, 1997, Crawford, 2011a and Shin et al., 2012). Social differentiation began to appear during the Mumun period (archeologically termed Mumun after its emergent plain-pottery tradition, 3500–2400 BP), eventually allowing the elite family lineages or “houses” that led in organizing community economic activities to prosper disproportionately from them. Elite prerogatives then grew greatly into the following Early Iron Age (2400–2000 BP).