Scope of review: One approach towards achieving this goal is the

Scope of review: One approach towards achieving this goal is the use of exomarkers. In this, exogenous probe compounds are administered to the intact organism and are then transformed by the reactive molecules in vivo to produce a diagnostic exomarker. The exomarker and the precursor probe can be analysed ex vivo to infer

the identity and amounts of the reactive species present in vivo. This is akin to the measurement of biomarkers produced by the interaction of reactive species with endogenous biomolecules. Major conclusions and general significance: Our laboratories have developed mitochondria-targeted probes that STA-9090 datasheet generate exomarkers that can be analysed ex vivo by mass spectrometry to assess levels of reactive species within mitochondria in vivo. We have used one of these compounds, MitoB, to infer the levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide within flies and mice. Here we describe the development of MitoB and expand on this example to discuss how better probes and exomarkers can be developed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species – pros and cons and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor:

Christine Winterbourn. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: In patients with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), anatomic suitability for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) depends on aortic neck and iliac artery characteristics. If the aortoiliac anatomy is unsuitable for EVAR (“hostile anatomy”), open repair (OR) is the next option. We hypothesized LY3023414 that the death rate for OR SB202190 is higher

in patients with hostile anatomy than in patients with friendly anatomy. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study in 279 consecutive patients with an RAAA treated with OR between 2004 and 2011. The primary endpoint was 30-day or in-hospital death. Aortoiliac anatomy (friendly vs. hostile) was determined prospectively by the vascular surgeon and the interventional radiologist treating the patient. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess the risk of dying in patients with hostile anatomy after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and hemodynamic stability. Results: Aortoiliac anatomy was friendly in 71 patients and hostile in 208 patients. Death rate was 38% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28 to 50%) in patients with friendly anatomy and 30% (95% CI: 24 to 37%) in patients with hostile anatomy (p = .23). After multivariable adjustment, the risk of dying was not higher in patients with hostile anatomy (adjusted odds ratio 0.744, 95% CI 0.394 to 1.404). Conclusion: The death rate after open repair for an RAAA is comparable in patients with friendly and hostile aortoiliac anatomy. (C) 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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