The first most prominent products are Doxil (Sequus) and DaunoXome (Gilead, Nexstar). Both are indicated as anticancer drugs, which were successfully tested in clinical studies, followed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the 1990s. In general, liposomes are defined as spherical vesicles with particle sizes ranging from 30nm to several micrometers. They consist of one or more lipid bilayers surrounding aqueous compartments, where the polar head groups are oriented towards the interior and exterior
aqueous phases. However, self-aggregation of polar lipids is not restricted to conventional bilayer structures which depend on temperature, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical molecular shape, and environmental and preparation conditions but may self-assemble into various kinds of colloidal particles [5, 6]. Due to this fact, the liposome
family includes various kinds of colloidal particles and structures Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which hamper systematic classification. However, they can be classified by structure, composition, and preparation, as shown in Table 1. Table 1 Classification of commonly known lipid vesicles according to their structures and/or preparation. Technology and application are driven by two major Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical facts. First, the transfer from academic bench to a highly regulated, high technology industry was difficult for liposome technology because of the lack of appropriate methods Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to produce large quantities in a controlled and reproducible manner. Although several methods are suitable for large-scale production, their development, implementation, and sellekchem Quality control needed a certain time. Second, early clinical trials were not as successful as expected because the stability of conventional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical liposomes was low, caused by inefficient preparation, physical properties, and unfavorable choice of lipids.
Furthermore, they were to a great extent cleared by liver and spleen very rapidly so that neither a prolonged biological half-life nor specific targeting was achieved. More stable conventional liposomes and second-generation formulations, such as the stealth technology, gave new impulses to the industry as well as to kinase inhibitor Belinostat clinicians with the development of industrial processes in the AV-951 1990s. 1.2. Liposome Technology and Regulatory Requirements In the last decade, the European Agency of the Evaluation of Medical Products (EMA) as well as the FDA has implemented the subject of liposome into their guidelines. Currently, EMA has not yet published any summarizing document or guideline which is dealing exclusively with nanoparticular structures. However, general aspects of liposomes are covered in several guidelines such as “Note of Guidance on the Quality, Preclinical and Clinical Aspects of gene transfer medicinal,” and “Guideline on adjuvant in vaccines for human use”.