The study has advanced knowledge of this population by taking a person-centred, multi-perspective approach to explore the domains of wellbeing stipulated in policy guidance, while going beyond prior single-domain studies to describe the interrelatedness of these domains. Findings highlight the stark reality of living with HIV, confirming that patients experience psychosocial and spiritual suffering, as well as physical pain and other symptoms. The use of multiple perspectives enabled triangulation of findings, contributing to validity. Patients’ everyday lives were characterised Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by poverty and stigma: they
were preoccupied with worries about basic needs such as food, employment and transport Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to collect medication, and described feelings of isolation and experiences of discrimination which added to the burden of living with HIV. The existential impact of HIV, including hopelessness, fears of the future and feelings
of despair and doubt, was intimately related to psychosocial and physical suffering. The findings elucidate the detrimental effect of stigma on patients and their families. Stigma against those with HIV is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa [34,35]. In collectivist societies in which social relationships are highly important , the experience of stigma and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical social isolation may be particularly detrimental. Stigma contributes to non-adherence to ART [37,38] and is associated with rejection , breakdown of social support [39,40], difficulty finding work  and poor mental health . Pain management at the facilities was limited by problems with opioid availability. As in Dekker et al’s study of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a public hospital and its clinics in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, strong pain medicines were often in short supply
or unavailable . Dekker et al. found that health care providers’ misperception of palliative care as end of life care (and hence inappropriate to patients with HIV) constituted a barrier to adequate pain selleckchem Ruxolitinib control in HIV patients. Findings from our study provide further support for the need for staff training in the palliative care approach, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical including psychosocial and spiritual support as well as improved pain control. Counselling and limited spiritual support were described, but unmet psychosocial and spiritual needs appeared to contribute to and exacerbate patients’ experience of pain. The findings from this study thus support the notion that pain is a complex phenomenon which can have nonphysical Dacomitinib as well as physiological dimensions and causes, as captured in the concept of ‘total pain’ . The total pain model recognises that pain is multifaceted and that psychological, social and spiritual problems can contribute to the inhibitor manufacture overall phenomenology of pain . While previous research into the experience of total pain has focussed on developed country settings [43-45], this study demonstrates the total pain experienced by HIV patients in sub-Saharan Africa.