VIS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fast

VIS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and noncliabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism in = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations

of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were similar to 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P SIS3 nmr < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine

concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened AZD1390 acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance. J. Nutr. 139: 1073-1081, 2009.”
“Ginsenoside Rb1 is the most abundant ginsenoside in Panax Epigenetic signaling pathway inhibitor (ginseng). The hydrolysis of this ginsenoside produces compound K, the biologically active ginsenoside of ginseng. We previously identified a fungus Paecilomyces Bainier sp. 229 (sp. 229), which can efficiently convert ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K. In this report,

the ginsenoside hydrolyzing beta-glucosidases were isolated from sp. 229 and the pathway of the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K by sp. 229 was investigated. Based on reverse-phase HPLC and TLC analysis, we found the main metabolic pathway is as follows: ginsenoside Rb1 -> ginsenoside Rd -> ginsenoside F2 -> compound K. Moreover, the results showed that there were other metabolic pathways: ginsenoside Rb1 -> ginsenoside XVII -> ginsenoside F2 -> compound K and ginsenoside Rb1 -> ginsenoside Rg3 -> ginsenoside Rh2. These processes would allow the specific bioconversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to various ginsenosides using an appropriate combination of specific microbial enzymes. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Concurrent EEG/fMRI recordings represent multiple, simultaneously active, regionally overlapping neuronal mass responses.

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