We assessed whether recurrent episodes of acute withdrawal contri

We assessed whether recurrent episodes of acute withdrawal contribute to the development of psychomotor sensitization in rodents during daily morphine exposure. The acoustic startle reflex-a measure of anxiety induced by opiate withdrawal-was used to resolve and quantify discrete withdrawal episodes, and pharmacological interventions were used to manipulate withdrawal severity. Startle potentiation was observed during spontaneous withdrawal from a single morphine exposure, and individual differences in initial withdrawal

severity positively predicted the subsequent development of sensitization. Manipulations that reduce or exacerbate withdrawal severity also produced parallel changes in the degree of sensitization. These results demonstrate that the episodic experience of withdrawal during

daily drug exposure has I-BET-762 chemical structure a novel role in promoting the development of psychomotor sensitization-a prominent model of drug-induced neurobehavioral plasticity. Episodic withdrawal may have a pervasive role in many effects of intermittent drug exposure and contribute to the development of addiction. Y-27632 molecular weight Neuropsychopharmacology (2010) 35, 2579-2589; doi:10.1038/npp.2010.134; published online 1 September 2010″
“Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) has emerged as a new molecular mechanism that controls wide-ranging functions in the nervous system, including fine-tuning of synaptic connections during development and synaptic plasticity in Janus kinase (JAK) the adult organism. In the UPP, attachment of a small protein, ubiquitin, tags the substrates for degradation by a multisubunit complex called the proteasome. Linkage of ubiquitin to protein substrates is highly specific and occurs through a series of well-orchestrated enzymatic steps. The UPP regulates neurotransmitter receptors, protein kinases, synaptic proteins, transcription factors, and other molecules critical for synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence indicates that the operation

of the UPP in neurons is not homogeneous and is subject to tightly managed local regulation in different neuronal subcompartments. Investigations on both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems have revealed local roles for enzymes that attach ubiquitin to substrate proteins, as well as for enzymes that remove ubiquitin from substrates. The proteasome also has been shown to possess disparate functions in different parts of the neuron. Here I give a broad overview of the role of the UPP in synaptic plasticity and highlight the local roles and regulation of the proteolytic pathway in neurons.”
“Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired cognitive control associated with prefrontal cortex dysfunction, but the underlying pathophysioloical mechanisms remain unknown. Higher cognitive processes are associated with cortical oscillations in the gamma range, which are also impaired in chronic schizophrenia.

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