Our results show that exogenously administered adenosine derivati

Our results show that exogenously administered adenosine derivatives can be useful in regulating the oxidative burst of neutrophils in the inflammatory process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights CT99021 reserved.”
“Dendritic cells (DCs) and tumor cell-derived exosomes have been used to develop antitumor vaccines. However, the biological properties and antileukemic effects of leukemia cell-derived exosomes (LEXs) are not well described. In this study, the biological properties and induction of antileukemic immunity of LEXs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, western blot analysis, cytotoxicity assays, and animal studies.

Similar to other tumor cells, leukemia cells release exosomes. Exosomes derived from K562 leukemia cells (LEXK562) are membrane-bound vesicles with diameters of approximately 50-100 mu m and harbor adhesion molecules (e.g., intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and immunologically associated molecules (e.g., heat shock protein 70). In cytotoxicity assays and animal studies, LEXs-pulsed DCs induced an antileukemic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response and antileukemic immunity more

effectively than did LEXs and non-pulsed DCs (P smaller than 0.05). Therefore, LEXs may harbor antigens and immunological molecules associated with leukemia cells. As such, LEX-based vaccines may be a promising strategy for prolonging disease-free survival in patients

with leukemia after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.”
“Background: Selleck PLX4032 Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has proven to be a useful yet inconsistent tool to manage a variety of pathologic conditions. Factors believed to lead to poor postoperative range of motion (ROM) may be associated with preoperative diagnosis, poor preoperative ROM, and surgical factors such CP-868596 concentration as inability to lengthen the arm. The purpose of this study was to analyze multiple factors that may be predictive of motion after RSA. Our hypothesis is that intraoperative ROM is most predictive of postoperative ROM. Methods: Between February 2003 and April 2011, 540 patients (217 men and 323 women) treated with RSA were evaluated with measurements of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative ROM at a follow-up, where ROM was found to have plateaued at 1 year as determined by a pilot study. A regression analysis was performed to define independent predictive factors of postoperative active ROM. Results: Intraoperative forward flexion was the strongest predictor of final postoperative ROM, followed by gender and preoperative ROM. Age and arm lengthening were not significant independent predictors. Controlling for gender and preoperative ROM, patients with an intraoperative elevation of 90 degrees gained 29 degrees in postoperative forward elevation (P smaller than .

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